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OF % 

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M?f PULLAT*. 






Za laj)>Annj$cuuxke 
(Decoratii^cArt 



STIRLING 
AND FRAN CINE 

CLARIS 
ART INSTITUTE 
LIBRART 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Federally funded with LSTA funds through the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners 



http://archive.org/details/ladysmanualoHan1858pul 




DICK & VtHGEKAU). WW-TOK. 



THE 

LADY'S MANUAL OF FANCY-WORK: 

A COMPLETE INSTRUCTOR IN EVERY VARIETY OP 

ORNAMENTAL NEEDLEWORK; 

INCLUDING 

APPLIQUE, EMBROIDERY, FRENCH EMBRO'RY, TAP'SE D'AUXERRK 

BEAD-WORK, GOLDEN TAPESTRY, NETTING, TAPE-WORK, 

BERLIN-WORK, KNITTING, ORNE-WORK, TATTING, 

BRAIDING, KNOTTING, PATCH-WORK, TRANSFERRING, 

BOBBIN-WORK, LACE-WORK, POINT LACE, VELVET BALLS, 

CROCHET, MUSLIN-WORK, POTICHOMANIE, WIRE-WORK, 

SHADING AND COLORING, PRINTERS' MARKS, ETC., ETC. 

With a List of Materials, and Hints for their Selection ; Advice on Making 

up and Trimming ; a Catalogue of Articles suitable for Wedding, 

Birthday, and New Year Gifts; and a Glossary of 

French and German terms used in Needle-work. 

not to be found in any Dictionary 

THE WHOLE BEING A COMPLETE 

LEXICON OF FANCY NEEDLE-WORK. 

BY Mill S. . IP XT LI, AN, 

(AIGUILLETTE,) 

AUTHOR OF "THE MANUAL OF THE WARDROBE," "THE COURT PARTIAL," "MATERNAL COUN- 
SELS," ETC.; EDITOR OF'"THE LONDON REVIEW" AND "THE LONDON AND PARIS 
GAZETTE OF FASHION," AND DIRECTOR OF THE WORKTABLE OF FRANK 
LESLIE'S MAGAZINE, ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE OF ART, LADY'S 
COMPANION, LADY'S NEWSPAPER, BELI.E ASSEMBI.EE, 
HOME CIRCLE, DOMESTIC MAGAZINE, 
ILLUSTRATED LONDON MAGAZINE, AND FAMILY FRIEND. 

Ulustra ed with over 300 Engravings, by the best Artists. 



NEW YORK: 

DICK &c FITZGERALD, PTIBLISHEES. 



U.TKED according to Act of Congress, in the year 18B8, by 

DICK & FITZGERALD, 

fc 0. OU.W office M ** District Court of the United States, for the Souto.ro District of Ne* ft*. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, 9 

APPLIQUE, IT 

Patent, 18 

BEAD-WORK, , 19 

Pound Bead, 20 

0. P. Bead, 21 

Weaving Pound Beads, 22 

0. P. Bead Vases, 22 

Bead Collars, 23 

BERLIN-WORK, 24 

To Frame Canvas and Cloth, 25 

Tent-stitch, 25 

Cross-stitch, 25 

Tapestry or Gobelin-stitch, 26 

German-stitch, 26 

Irish-stitch, 26 

Raised Berlin-work, 2T 

Figure and Landscape Patterns, ... 2S 

Armorial Bearings, 2S 

Patterns on Canvas, 29 

Gem and Set Patterns, 80 

Silk Canvas-work, 30 

Tapestry Designs, 80 

Golden Tapestry Patterns, 81 

Crochet and Knitted Berlin-work, . 81 

To Join Canvas, 82 

To Press Finished work, 82 

BOBBIN-WORK, 82 

Chain-stitch, 88 

Herringbone, 88 



PAOB 

Double Herringbone, 83 

Close Herringbone, 84 

Long Brussels, 34 

BRAIDING, S4 

Raised Braiding, 35 

Cord Braiding, 35 

Cotton Braiding, 3G 

Bead Braiding, 86 

BRODERIE ANGLAISE, 86 

Broderie a la Minute, 37 

" en lacet, 37 

CROCHET, 37 

Holding Materials, 88 

Chain or Foundation-stitch, SS 

Slip-stitch, 39 

Single Crochet, 39 

Short Double Crochet, 89 

Double Crochet, 89 

Short Treble Crochet, 40 

Treble Crochet, 40 

Half Long Treble, 40 

Long Treble, '. 40 

Braid Chain-stitch, 40 

Square Crochet, 41 

Long Square Crochet, 41 

Octagons and Hexagons, 41 

To increase a Square at each edge, 41 

To decrease at each edge, 42 

Ribbed Crochet, 43 

Crochet Cross-stitch, 42 

Princess Frederic William Stitch, . . 48 
S 



iv 



CONTEXTS. 



PAQE 

Bead Crochet, 44 

To use several Colors, 44 

To work from the Centre, 45 

Missing Stitches, 45 

To mark the commencement, 45 

To join on, 46 

Diamond Open-hem, 46 

Crochet Bead Jewelry, 46 

EMBROIDERY, 47 

French Knots, 49 

Raised Embroidery, 49 

Damask Embroidery, 49 

Knitted Embroider}', 50 

Another Knitted Embroidery, 51 

Fluted Embroidery, 51 

GUIPURE-WORK 52 

Irish Guipure 53 

HONITON LACE IX CROCHET, .... 54 

KNITTING, 55 

Position of the hands, 55 

Casting on, 56 

To Knit., 57 

To Purl 57 

BUp-atltcb, 57 

Twist-stitch, 57 

Twist Purl-stitch, 67 

To make Stitches, 5S 

To raise a Stitch, 58 

M< nits of Decreasing, 53 

To join, 50 

To ca-t off, 59 

To i Iom the Toe of a Sock, etc,. .. 69 

Brioche stitch, CO 

Double Knitting, 60 

Doable Herringbone, 60 

Single Herringbone, CO 

* • i • • d hem,* CO 

Diagonal Open-hem, co 

H ilitoh CI 

Dm 01 

Mitch QS 

i i\: 

and c- 

Bpldi m ■, 

OS 

1 . ■ tfc, (VI 



PAGE 

Half Diamond-stitch, . 64 

Plait-stitch, 64 

Myrtle Leaf, Go 

Cable, 65 

Coronet, C6 

Feather, 66 

Scallop SheU, 67 

Ridge, 6S 

Frill Knitting, 68 

Chinchilla Fur Trimming, 69 

Honeycomb, 69 

Diamond Honeycomb, 70 

Imitation Moss, 70 

KNOTTING, 71 

LACE-WORK, 72 

Canvas Lace-work, 72 

MUSLIX-WORK, 73 

Broderie Anglaise, 73 

Rose Scalloping, 74 

Scallops, 75 

Eyelet-holes, 75 

Chinese Eyelet-holes, 75 

Spots, 75 

French Embroidery, 77 

Wheels, 7S 

Shell-stitch, 83 

Cross-stitch, S3 

Fancy Stitches, ... S3 

NUTTING, 84 

The Plain Stitch, 84 

Square Nettiug, 86 

Oblong, 65 

Honeycomb, 85 

Round S6 

Grecian 86 

Long Tui..t Btttofa 86 

French Ground, 87 

Bpotted, sT 

Diamond S8 

Large Diamond, 38 

i .I Diamond I 

60 

Double-etltoh, 90 

Long itltoh, on 

With Bead* oa 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Darned Netting, 90 

Flanders Lace, '. 90 

Embroidery on Netting, 91 

Vandyke Square Netting, 91 

Another Pointed Edge, 92 

Shell Edging, 92 

Another Shell, 92 

Another Lace, 93 

Another Edging, 93 

ORNE CROCHET AND KNITTING:,.. 94 

OrneBalls, 94 



PATCHWORK, 95 

POINT LACE, 98 

Spanish Rose Point, 99 

Italian Point, 99 

Modern Point, 100 

Materials, 101 

The Outlines, 101 

Brussels Edge, 102 

Sorrento Edge, 102 

Venetian, 103 

Little Venetian, 103 

To fasten the Thread, 103 

LACES, 103 

Brussels, 103 

Long Brussels, 103 

Lined, or Filled Brussels 104 

Venetian Lace, 104 

Sorrento Lace, 104 

English Lace, 104 

Open English, 105 

English Rosettes, 105 

Henriquez Lace, 106 

Cordovan Lace, 106 

Valenciennes, 106 

Foundation, 106 

Antwerp, 107 

Open Antwerp, 10T 

Spotted Lace, 10S 

Venetian Spotted, 10S 

Escalier-stitch, 108 

Cadiz Lace, 108 

Fan Lace, '. 109 

Barcelona, 109 

Florentine, 109 



Roman, 109 

Mechlin AVheels, 110 

Bees' Wing Lace, 110 

BARS, Ill 

Venetian, Ill 

Edged Venetian 112 

Dotted Venetian, 112 

Sorrento Bars, 112 

Sorrento-edged Bars, 112 

Point-d'Alencon, 112 

English Bars, 112 

Raleigh Bars, 112 

Point Edge 113 

Grounding Bars, 114 

Veining, 114 

POTICHOMANIE, 115 

SWISS LACE, 118 

TAMBOUR-WORK, 119 

TAMBOURED NETTING, 120 

TAPISSERIE D'AUXERRE, 121 

TAPE-WORK, 121 

TATTING-, 122 

The Stitch, .... 122 

The Picot, 123 

To Join, 124 

Bars, 124 

To Join on a new Thread, 125 

The Materials, 125 

TRANSFERRING, 125 

VELVET BALLS, 126 

WIRE-WORK, 127 

Baskets and Vases, 127 

Wire Canvas-work, 129 

PRINTERS' MARKS, 129 

SHADING AND COLORING, 131 

LEAVES, 131 

Bright Green Rose Leaf, 1S1 

Dark Rose Leaf, 188 



VI 



CONTEXTS. 



PAGE 

Faded Leaf, 132 

White Roses and other Flowers,. . . 132 

Damask Roses, 132 

Pink Flowers, 132 

Yellow Flowers, 132 

Light Blue 132 

Dark Blue, 132 

Purple, 132 

Combinations of Colors, 132 

KNITTED EDGINGS, 135 

, Shawl Border, 185 

Diamond Spotted Edging, 135 

Three-hole Point, 136 

Ox-hole Point, 136 

Five-hole 136 

Deep Vandyke, 1 ; j6 

Scalloped, 136 

Deep Lace, 137 

PATTERNS, 13T 

Knitted Driving Glove, 187 

Lady's Winter Over-glove, 139 

Knitted Rigolette, 139 

Knitted Basque for a Child, .. ..141 
Netted Mittens in Maltese Lace, .. 143 

Imitation Honiton Lace, 144 

Guipure Embroidery, 146 

Coral Pattern Guipure Sleeve, 146 

Patent Applique Slippers, 147 

Doyley for Fruit Dish, 147 

Striped Crochet Tidy, 147 

Gloucester Point Collar, 1 IS 

Embroidered Cufl M9 

Medallion Sleeve, 149 

Appllque'Smoklng Cap,. 149 

Lamp Mat (Berlin-Work), 150 

Braided Dinner Mat, 160 

Guipure Collar, . 160 

Haiti I i eve, LSI 

Ti.iy for a Prle dlen, 151 

Modern Polnl Collar, 152 

i ml Ottoman 152 

Crochel and Bead Border, 158 

168 

I [64 

i liotnol i.m 

Dl I y ml;. !.■• Nil 

ling im 

M< 'i'i! •■'! iii ai lion, . . 166 



PAGE 

Braided Slipper, 155 

Applique Toilet Cushion, 155 

Handsome Mat in 0. P. Bead-wurk, 156 

Infant's Embroidered Shoe, 156 

Suspension Flower Vase, 157 

Tase Mat, 157 

Patchwork Design, 157 

Design for Suspenders, ... 15S 

BookMark, 159 

Collar and Cuff a la Poste, 159 

Piccolomini Collar and Cuff, 159 

Spanish Point Sleeve, 160 

Border for a Table Cover, 160 

Trimming in Tatting, 101 

MATERIALS, 163 

APPLIQUE CLOTH, 163 

BEADS, 163 

Bohemian or O. P., 163 

Pound, 164 

Seed, 165 

Fancy, 165 

Bugles, 165 

Metal Beads, 166 

Berlin Patterns, 166 

O. P.Berlin Patterns, 167 

BRAIDS, 167 

Silk Braids, 167 

Plain Russian, 167 

Alliance, 167 

Star, 16S 

Eugenie, 168 

Sardinian, 168 

Albeit, 108 

Broad Silk Braid, 168 

Soutache, 168 

Gold and Silver Braid, 16S 

Cotton Braids— French White Cot- 
ton, 168 

Russian Cotton, 168 

u aved Braid, 169 

Eugenia Tape, 169 

Linen Braids, 169 

Ootton alliance 169 

Wo led 168 

Mohair, 169 

mil RDON... 1C9 



CONTENTS. 



VU 



PAGE 

BULLION, 169 

CANNETILLE, 169 

CANVAS, 170 

French Cotton, 1T0 

English, 170 

German, 170 

Silk, 171 

Imitation Silk, 171 

Brace, 171 

Railway, 171 

Mosaic, 171 

Java, 171 

To Select Canvas, 171 

CHENILLE, 172 

CLOTH-WORK, 172 

CORDS, 173 

Crochet, 178 

Fancy Silk, 173 

Crystal Twine, 173 

Crochet Twine, 173 

COTTONS, 173 

EVANS' Boar's Head Crochet, Sewing, 

and Machine, 175 

Royal Glac6, 175 

Royal Embroidery, 175 

French Embroidery, 175 

Tatting Cotton, 176 

Knitting 176 

Moravian, 176 

Mechlenburg Thread, 176 

Beading Cotton, 176 

Colored Embroidery, 176 

Table of Sizes of Cotton, 176 

Agent for the Cottons, 177 

FRINGES, 177 

O. P. Bead, 177 

Pound Bead Fringe, 177 

Silk Fringe, 178 

Orne Fringe, 179 

GIMP, 179 

GAUGE, 179 

KNITTING IMPLEMENTS, 180 



LITEAUX, 180 

MUSLINS, ISO 

NEEDLES, ISO 

Crochet Hooks, 181 

Knitting Needles, 181 

Elliptics, 181 

Rug Needles, 182 

Tapestry, 1S2 

Sewing, 182 

Netting, 1S2 

Beading, 1S2 

NET, 182 

Bobbinet, 1S2 

Filet, 1S3 

Guipure, 183 

ORNE BALLS, 1S3 

ORNE FRINGE BALLS, 1S3 

PASSEMENTERIE, 183 

PENWIPER ORNAMENTS, 1S4 

PERFORATED CARDBOARD, 1S4 

PIQUE, 184 

POINT PAPER, 1S4 

POUNCED PATTERNS, 1S5 

RINGS, 1S5 

SILKS, 1S6 

Crochet, 1S6 

Netting, 186 

Soie d' Avignon, 1S6 

Dacca, 1SG 

Floss, 1S6 

Filoselle, 1S6 

China, 1S7 

Sewing, 1ST 

Skeleton Frames 1S7 

Tabouret, 1S7 

Toile Ciree, 1S7 

Tracing Paper, 1S7 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

TRIMMINGS, 189 

Sofa Cushions, 183 

Smoking Caps, 188 

Banner Screens, 188 

Hand Screens, 188 

Bags, 18S 

Eugenie Bags, 1SS 

Marquise Bags, 1S8 

Purses, 188 

Tobacco Bags, 1S9 

Whatnots, 1S9 

Knitted Scarfs, etc., 1S9 

WOOLS, 189 

Berlin or Zephyr, 1S9 

Shaded, 1S9 

Ombr6, 190 

Pearl, 190 

Crystal, 190 

Fleecy, 190 

Angola, 190 

Lamb's, 190 

Worsted, 190 

Patent Orn6 Balls, 190 

Orne Fringe Balls, 191 



PAOB 

Shetland Wool, 191 

Pyrenees, 191 

Crewels, 191 

MAKING UP FANCY-WORK, 192 

Note-cases, etc., 192 

Shaving Books, 193 

Sofa Cushions, 193 

Carriage Bags, 193 

Tobacco Bags, 194 

HaDd or Eugenie Bags, 194 

Fancy Bags, 195 

Banner Screens, 195 

Smoking Caps, 195 

Mats, 195 

Hand Screens, 196 

Whatnots, 196 

To Quill Ribbon, 19T 

LIST OF PRESENTS,.... 193 

OBSOLETE ARTICLES, 200 

GLOSSARY, 201 

POSTSCRIPT, 2U6 



INTRODUCTION. 



Foe years I had cherished, almost hopelessly, two earnest wishes : 
one was to be enabled to visit, and become acquainted with America ! 
— the Paradise of women, respected, — as the theatre of the noblest 
and purest struggle for freedom ever exhibited in the history of tbe 
world ! loved, — as having been the home of my fathers, ere, in remem- 
bering they were royalists, tbey forgot that they were Americans ! — 
endeared still more as the spot where dwelt the dearest and best of 
all my dear and good friends. I had listened to ber glowing descrip- 
tions of the beauties of the Hudson, and the glories of Niagara — of 
the blue and lofty skies, and bright waters of the Bay of New York — 
until I turned, with unspeakable weariness, from the contempla- 
tion of the wilderness of brick and mortar which formed the 
world immediately surrounding me — the world of London ! So 
entirely did I feel myself a fixed inhabitant of that overgrown 
ant-hill, that even my ardent wishes to see America hardly jus- 
tified the promise to my friend that some day I would certainly 
join her in her Western home. Nothing seemed more improbable ; 
but there is a popular French proverb, in the truth of which I have 
unbounded confidence: it asserts that u Ce que femme veut. Dicu 
veut," or, liberally translated, "What woman wishes, God wills:" 
and I, for one, believe we rarely form any earnest and rational desire 
without having, at some time or other, the opportunity of gratifying 
it ; especially if we happen to be largely endowed with that quality 
which our friends call Determination, and our enemies stigmatize as 
Obstinacy. 

I* ix 



X INTRODUCTION. 

At all events, I now date from New York, toping (what were life 
without hope?) to become acquainted, throughout its length and 
breadth, with a land that charms me more every day that I live in it. 
This wish, it seems, is in course of realization ! Strange, that at the 
same time, I should be enabled to fulfill another very earnest, though 
different desire : to write and publish the work of which this is the 
introduction. 

Tear after year, during my engagements on the "Work-table of the 
leading periodicals of the London press, I became more and more 
painfully aware of the necessity that existed for a thorough guide to 
every branch of Fancy-work. Books there were, innumerable, on the 
subject; I myself had contributed to their number in no slight 
degree — books on crochet, on netting, on knitting, on oue or several 
sorts of fashionable work — but they were not sufficiently comprehen- 
sive : they treated only of the fashions of the day, ignoring all that 
happened to be out of vogue. They were, therefore, one and all, 
more ephemeral productions than the book I contemplated ought to 
be. True ! there is nothing new under the sun ; that which appears 
as a novelty in the present day, is always a revival of some fashion 
of former times ; hence the need that a complete guide to Fancy- 
work should not confine itself merely to that in vogue at the time. 
It should comprehend explanations of all the kinds that ever havo 
been fashionable, since it is quite probable that they may again be so 
in the course of a very few years. 

Nor is instruction in the more producing of certain stitches all 
thai snob, a book Bhould contain. It is quito as requisite to know 
liow to Beleot materials — to ohoose the good and reject the inferior; 
nor is it one person in a hundred who is even acquainted by name 
with the different sorts of materials. A catalogue raisormi, an 

explanatory li-l of tin- articles used in Fancy-work, always held in 

nd a prominenl plaoe as a pari of the contemplated — no, only 
</. iri l book. 



INTRODUCTION. Xj 

The large trade done in making up finished work for ladies %%],.,. 
probably, if they knew what was to be done, would do it infinitely 
better and more tastefully themselves than it ever is at stores, proved 
that this sort of instruction also was indispensable ; and to many 
who live at a distance from large cities, a mere list of the sorts nf 
work in existence has a value of itself. 

Finally, a glossary of the technical terms used for the work-table 
by the French and Germans appeared desirable, because they were 
not to be found in any dictionary ; and this deficiency proved, in 
many cases, a great hindrance to those who were excellent French 
and German scholars, but who, from want of intercourse with the 
natives, had never had an opportunity of learning these technical 
phrases. 

Such have been the principal wants in the Fancy-work way, 
developed to me during the years I have devoted to the subject ; 
and from the correspondence I maintained with many hundreds of 
ladies, not only in every part of the United Kingdom, but in Ame- 
rica, Australia, India, the Mauritius, and even France and Spain. 

There was another evil brought about by this absence of an 
acknowledged guide — the vast space taken up in the magazines 
every month, by reiterations of instructions (always necessary for 
new subscribers), and references to former volumes, which perhaps 
the reader did not possess. The Lexicon should serve to explain all 
difficulties, not in present designs only, but also in past and future 
ones. 

I have said I looked almost hopelessly on this evident necessity, 
seeing hardly a possibility of carrying out my wish to remedy it. 
My daily avocations pressed too heavily on me, and, besides, it 
needed a certain elasticity of spirits, a certain freshness of intellect, 
to accomplish what I saw ought to be done; and my heart and 
brain were alike too wearied and worn by the eternal turmoil of 
London life. Tbe constant interruptions of ladies for consultations. 



XU IXTHOPrOTTON'. 

and printers' boys for copy — to say nothing of other hindrances of a 
more entirely personal natnre — forbade rny attempting such an 
undertaking with any chance of success. Once, indeed, a strong 
conviction of its necessity induced me to attempt it ; nor should I 
have abandoned the labor, but for a disgraceful trick on the part of 
the publisher, which so disgusted me that I declined further interest 
in the matter ; and the work now stands offering various pieces of 
information, more curious than valuable to the purchaser — such as 
that Brussels net is a metal, with other choice matter, "worth a 
sponge." 

So I wished, without hoping, to give to my many friends such a 
Lexicon of Needle-work as should be worthy both of them and of 
myself; until, in the realization of my first desire, I found also the 
means of fulfilling my second. 

Sailing up the glorious Hudson, I began to feel conscious of re- 
newed energy and ambition — wandering, day by day, on the High- 
lands, inhaling the aroma of the fresh springing pines, gathering 
bouquets of the beautiful wild flowers of the country, and pausing 
every few steps to drink in the glory of its blue hills, or climbing 
some ascent to gain a more extended view of its charms — with 
nothing to distract my mind but the gambols of my canine com- 
panions (always, to my mind, the pleasantest in such ran hies), my 
thoughts turned to the accomplishment of my long-cherished wish; 
and I felt at once the power and the will to carry it out. May I 
hope that it may be as QSeful as 1 intend it to be. I niav not have 
done all that could be done; bul at Least I have not, knowingly, left 
one thing undone, greal <>r Bmall, which oonld contribute to make it 
universally acceptable. All thai my long study and praotioe of the 
art it i ■If. and my intimate acquaintance with the requirements of 
v. bo are nol bo familiar with it, could suggest, have been 
bronghl to bear In its design and execution. 

I am peouliarlj fortunate, too, in the period of its production 



INTRODUCTION. X1U 

The era of the Atlantic Telegraph, is also that of the Sewing- 
Machine ! the time when women, disenthralled in a great measure 
from the drudgery and weariness of plain needle-work by its exten- 
sive introduction, will have more time to acquire, among other charm- 
ing accomplishments, that of Fancy Needle- work, which is not only a 
pleasant and ever-varying resource against ennui, but a direct agent 
in the cultivation of home pleasures and home affections. Does not 
a gift become trebly valuable when the time and thoughts, as well as 
the mere money of the giver, are represented in it ? Is any rank too 
humble or too exalted for the cultivation of this pleasure? The 
daughters of Queen Victoria, one and all, make birthday and Christ- 
mas family gifts of the work of their own hands ; and at the death 
of the late Czar of Eussia, a pair of slippers, worked in a single 
pattern by his empress, and given to him on their marriage, thirty 
years before, were found in his private chamber. True, the wealthy 
only, until recently, have had time to bestow, to any great extent, 
on Fancy-work ; but the day does not seem to me veiy distant 
when a "Wheeler & Wilson sewing-machine will be found in every 
household, as a matter of course, just as much as stoves or chairs. 

From the manner in which the manufacture of this particular com- 
pany was first brought before me, I was convinced that it held a pre- 
eminent place among those brought before the public. Inspecting 
some machine-stitched goods, I questioned whether they might not, 
like some shirt-bosoms I had recently seen, cut along each line of 
sewing on the first or second washing. 

" Oh, no, madam ! These are stitched by a Wheeler & Wilson 
machine," answered the store-keeper, as if that name was au un- 
questionable guarantee of excellence. 

" But will they iron well? Some of the machine stitches catch 
the iron, and make a ridge." 

"Ah, that's not the Wheeler & Wilson's lock-stitch. See, madam, 
it is precise!} the same on both sides 1" 



XIV ESTTKODTJCTION. 

Curious to kx:w whether this gentleman's opinion was shared by 
his fraternity in general, I continued my researches ; and finding 
popular opinion confirmed by the verdict of the scientific, ended bv 
a very strong conviction of the superior character of the Wheeler 
& Wilson sewing-machine. And now, I earnestly advise all my 
friends to possess one ; if only to secure abundance of time for all 
the ornamental work that I hope to aid them in acquiring. 

I have alluded to my singular good fortune, in visiting America at 
a time when I may reasonably hope to find a more than usually free 
field for my exertions. 

Truly, the epoch in which we live is full of marvels ! the mighty 
iron band which now unites America and her Fatherland will prove 
not less a moral than a tangible link between the peoples ; well may 
the successful laying of the Atlantic Telegraph be hailed with joy by ■ 
all who see in it a pledge of dearer and closer union between two 
such nations as England and America. 

But even this greatest achievement of the age does not, to my 
mind, carry with it so much assurance of social improvement as the 
universality of the SEWING MACHINE, which (affecting the comfort 
of women in every class of society, altering beyond recognition the 
situation of the actual toiler, ameliorating that of the less pitied, but 
not less pitiable household drudge, the wife, whose limited income 
compels her to perform all her needlework herself, and who hitherto 
has been occupied incessantly in the dreary mechanical toil, to the 
total neglect of all those accomplishments and charms by which, it 
may be, Bhe won the heart of her husband — by the exorcise of which 
she might concentrate the affections of her children) bears with it 
H promise of social amenities, of domestic joys, tho full results 
of wliiih pen of woman, or even tongue of angel could hardly 
■ the. 

of tin- reverse of th,' picture -of the home where the wuo is 
morel] a Bort of upper servant, with the privilege of sitting in the 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

drawing-room, when she can find time to do so, we all know the 
effects. "Well may we hail with joy that greater Liberator of our 
sex, the Family Sewing-Machine. 

I have dwelt particularly in the Lexicon on the qualities of the 
materials to be employed, from a well-founded conviction that, in 
that respect, justice is not done to the women of America. To work 
with bad materials is surely as great a trial of patieuce as can be 
devised: and how such miserable cottons, needles, hooks, etc., as are 
sold here, ever find purchasers, puzzles me. "Were ladies to throw 
down their work in utter despair, I should not feel at all astonished. 
Often I have heard them blame their own stupidity, when, .instead 
of stupidity, they were exhibiting real skill, and most praiseworthy 
perseverance. 

Much of the bad selection of materials has arisen, no doubt, from 
ignorance on the part of the store-keepers. To them, crochet cotton 
was crochet cotton — all equally good, whether made of the choicest 
raw material, or of the commonest trash — whether the machinery 
employed was perfect and thoroughly adapted, or of the most inferior 
kind : that the cotton turned perfectly yellow on the first washing 
was no business of theirs. They never trouble themselves to consider 
whether any were procurable that did not, and could see no differ- 
ence between the beautiful Boar's Head Cotton of Messrs. Walter 
Evans & Co., and the miserable yarn sold here commonly for Tidies. 
So with crochet hooks : provided there was a hook at the end, it 
answered the purpose ; and no matter whether it tore the fingers and 
cut the cotton, or not. There is no excuse now for such ignorance. 

However, if ladies determine to have good articles, no doubt they 
will succeed ; and all parties will shortly find the benefit of more 
extended knowledge. I shall be at least able to give any counsel 
which may be required or desired on the subject of Fancy-work ; 
and trust that my name, and the years I have devoted to these sub- 
jects, will afford some guarantee for the correctness of my judg- 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

ment, and the honesty of my opinions : of the clearness of my 
instructions every reader must judge for herself. 

In conclusion, I will only add, that this Lexicon is, as its name 
implies, a book of reference, neither intended nor calculated to 
supersede new patterns and designs, hut only to elucidate them, and 
make them more easy to copy. While I hope it will have its place on 
every work-table, I do not wish it to exclude the magazines in which 
Fancy-work forms a feature. On the contrary, I trust that feature 
will become daily more attractive and more deserving of attention. 
Hitherto, my designs have been copied, without acknowledgment, 
by many magazines, with either no alteration, or such as deteriorates 
from their value ; such as omitting the name of the cotton-maker 
from a recipe, which may result in the complete spoiling of the work. 
Mr. Leslie, only, at once availed himself of my presence in New 
York, to engage me to superintend the work-table of his magazine ; 
and the result will be that from the use of this book as a text-book, 
the work-table of Frank Leslie's Magazine will be copious, clear, and 
concise, benefiting the reader by its simplicity, and also by its abridg- 
ing the space for each description, giving scope for a greater variety 
of interesting matter. 

It is but justice to myself, in this, my first work written on Ame- 
rican soil, to say that there is not one magazine, in which Fancy- 
work is a feature, that does not, with or without acknowledgment, 
avail itself of my labors, nor an editor to whom my name is not 
familiar as a " household word," although hitherto it has been, not 
very justly, withheld from American ladies, lor whom the 

Lady's Manual of Fancy-\\oi:k 

peoially written, and to whom it is respectfully and affection 

ately dedicated l>y 

Tiik Author. 

• ■■, o ( -tobcr, 1858. 



TEE 

LADY'S MANUAL 

OF 

FANCY NEEDLEWORK. 



Applique ok Application-work. — This term is applied 
to all work in which the design is cut or stamped out in 
one material, and fastened in any way on another, which 
forms the ground ; the two heing united at the edges hy 
braid, cord, or any other material. Of course, when mus- 
lin or cambric is worked over net, the term is suitable; 
but, as that is usually known as Swiss Lace, the name is 
especially appropriate to works in cloth, velvet, satin, lea- 
ther, and such materials. Smoking caps, cigar cases, and 
many other articles of Parisian manufacture, have the 
design stamped out in velvet, and fastened on a cloth 
ground. As stamping tools and machinery are used for 
this purpose, and the workers bring skill, taste, and inces- 
sant practice to then aid, they do it infinitely better than any 
private person could — and cheaper also. It is greatly pre- 
ferable, therefore, to purchase such articles prepared ready 
for working from a respectable house, than to attempt to do 
it for yourself. Articles in cloth and velvet are generally 



18 PATENT APPLIQUE — BEAD-W t>EK. 

braided in gold braid or cord ; or, at least, that material 
is intermixed with others. Sometimes lines of beads are 
sewed down as a braid. (See Bead braiding.) Almost 
always such work is not only prepared, but commenced, 
and the necessary materials for completion put up with it. 
This is a great convenience to the worker, provided they 
are good in quality, and appear sufficient in quantity. But 
good articles being so liable to tarnish at sea, it is always 
necessary to ascertain that all is right before you make 
the purchase. Of course, applique work is always expen- 
sive, 

Patent Applique is an invention of modern times, used 
for sofa cushions, slippers, bags, mats, and many other arti- 
cles. Instead of one material being cut out and fastened 
on another, the design is stamped in one color on a cloth 
of another. The outlines are then braided. The effect 
of this work is very good; many of the designs exceed- 
ingly beautiful, and the braid throwing up the inner color 
quite as if it were laid on. Scarlet, crimson, a very brilliant 
cherry (or cerise), blue, and green, on a white or black 
ground, are the most usual colors. For the braiding, 
nothing looks so Avell as some shades of maize and yellow 
Russia silk braid ; except, perhaps, the Alliance, which, as 
it may be selected to harmonize with both the colors of the 
cloth, looks very handsome. For instance, suppose the 
cushion to be scarlet and black, choose a blue and maize 
alliance braid. In laying it on, let the blue edge come 
against the scarlet, and the maize on the black. (See Braid- 
ing instructions.) 

For articles which, being very small, have delicate, yet 
complicated patterns, gold cord, laio on, has a rich 
effect. Applique penwipers look richer and more brilliant 
in this style than in any other. The cord must beat least 
No. a. 



BEAD-WORK. 



19 



Bead-work. — Although this is, in fact, but a hrnnch of 
Berlin-work, yet the importance it has of late attained 
requires that I should treat it separately. It is done on 
canvas, with pound beads, worked in tent stitch. The can- 
vas used is either silk or imitation silk, if the design is not 
to be grounded. Ordinary penelope canvas will do when 
intended for grounding. Be careful that the beads are 
suited to the canvas. Each one should just cover its proper 
space and no more ; and it is better that they be a little too 
small, than too large for the canvas ; so that if it happens 
that some one shade in a set is larger than the rest, the can- 
vas should be tried with them. 

A vast variety of articles are now ornamented entirely in 
bead-work. The tops of small occasional tables for drawing- 
rooms and boudoirs, sofa cushions, mats, baskets, slippers, 
screens, etc. No. 1 beads — the largest size — are used for 
tables ; No. 2 for cushions, baskets, and mats ; No. 3 for 
hand screens. 



ummmmm 

HgiggS213liK2iI 



lagfliHlBKHB 

RIKHBIBBIII 
rcBHBUHSfll 



The stitch used is always tent, from one hole to the next, 
or the next but one, diagonally upwards. I use Evans' 
Mecklenburg threads to sew them on, on account of the 
strength required to keep them in place. Sometimes silka 
of the colors of the beads are used; but I prefer thread. 
The chief difficulty of bead-work consists in the arrangement 
of colors, the supply being somewhat uncertain. What 1 
should call a good set, would consist of: — 



20 POtTNT) BEADS. 

4 whites — clear, opal, alabaster, and chalk ; 3 green 
greys ; 3 blue greys ; 3 lavenders ; 4 turquoise blues ; 3 
imperial ditto (or purple) ; 3 violets ; 4 yellows ; 4 ambers ; 
4 bronze ; 3 rubies ; 1 garnet ; 2 corals ; 3 pinks ; 3 fawns or 
drabs — black — and at least 10 greens, in shades of olive, yel- 
low, and emerald. 

The mode of arranging them is to vary, and to harmonize 
them as much as possible. White flowers, scrolls, and even 
leaves, are very common. Now no two near each other 
ought to have the same tints. If one has the darker hues of 
green grey, let another be shaded in fawns — a third in laven- 
ders. Black may be taken as the deepest shade of dark 
green leaves, crimson and blue flowers, and even of bronze 
leaves. White, 2 pinks, and coral, will shade a pink rose. 
Black, garnet, 2 rubies, and coral, a dark one.. A light im- 
perial blue may often be taken as the darkest shade of a blue 
flower. When the ground is turquoise blue, no green leaves 
ought to be introduced. They should be entirely in bronze 
of various shades. The more bronzes and greens you have 
the better. Suppose you have six bronzes, with the aid of 
black and gold you will get eight shades. The manner of 
treating these would be: for a light leaf, take gold, 1st 
bronze, 3d and 5th ditto ; for a dark, black, darkest, and 
two lighter shades, wholly excluding the very lightest. A 
medium may be obtained by rejecting both lightest and 
darkest. These hints may serve as a guide for other colors. 
Observe, that shades should always be quite distinct, when 
u ed in the same leaf or flower, much more so than in wools. 
><\- they will look huddled. 

^lflO, you musl not do each shade separately, but work 

One lit I' your pattern throughout; then the next, and 

so on. 

POI m. BEADS are often employed with wools and silks. 

On.' very pretty use is to make them into the form of a 



O. P. BEADS. 21 

frame of scrolls and arabesques, for a landscape, or other sub- 
ject. They are also greatly employed in set patterns ; or for 
the fruit or flowers in a design where either is mingled with 
leaves. 

The most convenient way of keeping them for present nse, 
is to have a few of each that you are using in a flat box lid, 
which can rest on your frame, and be handy for the insertion 
of the needle. But the general stock ought to be kept tied 
up in bags, each shade by itself, and all the shades of one color 
in one larger bag of calico of something of the color of the 
bead. This way insures their safety: and in bead-work 
especially, the value is not to be estimated by the actual cost 
so much as by the great inconvenience that may result from 
the want of them. 

Pieces worked entirely in beads, when intended for any 
article likely to meet with hard wear, should, when finished, 
be fastened, face downwards, on a flat surface, and lightly 
brushed across the back with a thin solution of gum. This 
secures the threads firmly. 

O. P. beads are, also, sometimes worked on canvas, but 
they are not by any means adapted to this use. When 
woven, however, they may be made into many handsome 
articles. The manner of weaving is this : Select your pat- 
tern, which we will suppose to be a mat, with the requisite 
colors, Evans' Beading Cotton, No. 000, and two coarse 
needles. Take a long needleful of thread, and thread each 
end. Find out the centre of the mat, and begin by thread- 
ing the two middle top beads, one on each needle. On the 
next line there will be one square under the two. Choose a 
bead of that color, and thread both needles through it, in the 
same direction. In the next row, there will be a bead on 
each needle, then both through one. Continue so, down the 
centre of the mat. When you get to the bottom, cross the 
threads, and you may even tie them if you please. Then 



22 POTTED BEADS O. P. BEAD VASES. 

work one half the mat, slipping the needle through one bead 
where there were two, and adding one parallel with the single 
one. When you have to dimmish, you slip the needle up 
one or more. To join on the thread, make a weaver's knot 
in such a place that it will be concealed in some bead. 
Fringes or other borders are always added to bead mats. 
Of course, scollops, Vandykes, and many other designs can 
be made, if you have a pattern before you, or a small piece 
done, the mode of weaving being always the same. 

PoinsTD Beads are sometimes woven in this way, to form 
bracelets, napkin-rings, and small mats. The only care 
required is that the beads employed be all of the same size. 
Any that greatly vary from the average should be rejected. 
This applies also to O. P. beads. 

O. P. Bead Vases, for suspending in the windows to hold 
flowers or plants, are very easily made. A wire frame is 
procured at a wire-worker's. They vary hi shape, usually 
consisting of, at least, three rings, the smallest of which 
always is at the bottom. Clear white beads, with one bright 
color, such as a pretty green, form the prettiest. The wires 
are covered by having narrow white sarcenet ribbon wound 
closely round them. Then the beads are threaded in any 
fancy patterns, first to fill in, tolerably closely, the small 
round, and then to connect it with the others, at equal dis- 
tances. The wires are about the width of one bead, and 
they are covered with them, the thread passing round and 
round the wire, leaving a bead on the outer side, at every 
turn. Often a fringe, or vandyke trimming goes round the 
upper wire ; but the vase can lie made very pretty without, 
and these solid trimmings add undesirably to the weight. 
At llic bottom, and at every point, or the centre of every 
BOOllop, is Huston ed a handsome tassel of the same heads, 
With the addition of any silvered or steel you may have. 
Make them of any pretty pattern, only take care they are 



BEAD COLLAR!*. 23 

strongly finished. The suspenders, of which there are gene- 
rally six, or at least four, all uniting at the top, may he marie 
of any pattern you fancy. ^They always consist of double 
strings of beads. One pretty way is to thread two white on 
each end of a thread, and then run the needles, in of/posite 
directions, through a colored head. Or you may put three 
white on one needle, and four colored on the other. Then 
run both in the same direction, through one of, perhaps, a 
different color. Repeat so, having the four first on one side, 
and then on the opposite. By a little thought, a great 
variety of patterns may he made. 

Sets of dinner mats, woven in O. P. heads, and trimmed 
with the same, look very handsome ; hut they require cloth 
ones to he laid under them, beneath the tablecloth, to pre- 
serve the wood from scratches. 

Bead Collars. — These are made in beads only, or in beads 
and bugles. If the latter be employed, they must be about 
one-third of an inch long, and large enough to pass a needle 
with strong thread at least twice through. Bead collars are 
made either in black or white. Alabaster beads are the 
shade of white which most nearly resembles the color of 
bugles. You may either form stars, diamonds and other 
devices, in a mixture of beads and bugles, and tack them at 
intervals on a paper collar of the proper form and size, filling 
up the spaces and forming it into a collar by guipuring, if I 
may use the term, with other beads and bugles, and adding 
an edge of the same ; or you may work on a piece of ribbon 
long enough to go round the neck, and forming a foundation. 
In this case you make it like a fringe, but rather full, so as 
to set well round the shoulders. 

It is not needful to give patterns of this kind of work ; but 
I will observe that the edges of bugles being sharp and very 
liable to cut the thread, it is always well to shield it by 
putting on a bead before any part where two or three 



24 BERLIN-WORK. 

threads come together. The thread, also, ought always to 
be waxed. For black work, black crochet silk is better than 
thread, as less liable to cut. 



BERLIN-WORK. 

Berlin-work, or canvas-work, as it is sometimes called, 
derives its name from the fact that the best patterns used 
for it come from Berlin, and are commonly known as Berlin 
patterns. 

Wools, silks, chenille and beads are used for this work, 
the foimdation being canvas ; or sometimes perforated card- 
board. Of late years, beads have been employed so much, 
both in union with the other materials and alone, that 
bead-work has become an art by itself; and, as such, I shall 
treat it. 

Select your canvas, pattern and all materials before begin- 
ning, especially the grounding wool, of which it is always 
better to have too much than too little, it being often impos- 
sible precisely to match a shade. The frame should be of 
the kind known as a standing frame, with uprights, and a 
bar on which to rest the feet. The wood well-seasoned. 
Sometimes there are little trays attached to the uprights to 
hold the wools; but this is unnecessary, a small portable 
table being more convenient. A strong webbing is always 
attached to the upper ami lower bars. The side-bars ought 
to screw into the others. The canvas being evenly hemmed 
at cadi end, is sewed to the webhed bars, and then strained 
by cording to those at the side. The selvedges are always 
at th.- sides. When the canvas is longer than the frame will 
hold when stretched out, the upper part must be wound 
round the bar, so that you begin at the bottom, and work 




;■■.■■.■ 
n :,-';.;'.; :■;, 
d ■/■■ in np i- 

: 

,:'■.. I ■ ■ ;i I i ■ . . " ' , .: 

■ 

h ;:, ■"■■;: d-dd-dd' ■-■■-«■-■ :;, «■«; 

■ :. •. ■ ;.? ■-■■■---■: -BBB-n ■. ', ■, 






bgd- annoaBBaQ-aoa ■ *•. 

■■-■■BIIIGDOQO-I 

|pnu 

■=l=i=i-ai 




TENT-STITCH — CROSS-STITCH. 



25 



all the lower end first ; except when the pattern forms a cen- 
tre when you begin on the centre stitch. 

To frame Caxvas with Cloth, or other materials, when 
worked together to save grounding; cut your cloth half 
an inch smaller every way ; turn in the edges and tack to 
the canvas all round; and as this double thickness at the 
edges would leave the middle loose and slack when rolled, 
put a little fine wadding round the bars, at those parts where 
the edges do not come to make the thickness equal through- 
out. Cloth should always be sponged, to take off the gloss, 
before being put into a frame. It stretches so much more 
than canvas, that it will be quite as large by the time both 
are framed, although so much smaller at first. 

The needles used for canvas-work are termed rug- 
needles. 

There are five stitches used in Berlin-work. 

Tent^stitch (Fig. 1), in which the needle is brought up in 
one hole, and carried down one line higher and more towards 
th3 right. 



■HEBflJlZIM 



HHI3BIIKHB 



FlO. 1. 



Fio. 2. 



Cross-stitch (Fig. 2), where the thread crosses one hole, 
being carried down on the second line above, and to the 
right ; the stitch is finished by crossing from right to left, in 
the same manner ; whence its name. In working cross- 
stitch, when practicable, do half of all the stitches in a line, 
in succession ; then cross them, working backwards. 



26 



TAPESTRY — GERMAN-STITCH — IRISH-STITCH. 



mmmmm 
wmwiwm 
mmiwrnm 






Tapestry, or Gobelin-stitch, is two 
threads high, and one thread wide, 
being taken like the first half of cross- 
stitch, only one thread nearer. Two 
stitches side by side are thus equal to 
one cross-stitch; but they do not form 
a true square, since it protrudes a thread 
on one side. It is appropriate only for fine work ; for which 
it is better than the two former stitches. 

German-stitch, is used principally for 
grounding.- It is very quickly done. 
Take one tent-stitch, then half a cross- 
stitch, then a tent-stitch, then a half- 
cross-stitch ; and so on, working upwards 
and diagonally. (Seo engraving.) In 
the following rows, a tent-stitch comes 
on the same diagonal line with the 
and so on. 

Irish-stitch is somewhat similar, but 

Bin perpendicular lines. Pieces worked 
in cross or tent-stitch, are frequently 
grounded in one of these, on accoimt 
of the rapidity of execution. There may 
be made various modifications of these 
stitches, which will suggest themselves 
to any worker. 
I have also seen set patterns done in a real cross-stitch ; 
that is, over two horizontal threads, without crossing those 
in the opposite direction; and then across two perpcn- 
dioular. It, is rarely, however, used. Never for Berlin 
patterns. 

In all these stitches, it is essential that the wool should he 
drawn <>ut regularly and evenly ; never so tightly that the 
canvas becomes visible. Defects in avooI should also be cut 



half-cross 



_JBSnHg9HHH 

iiniEgiiimiBi 

IIBBHIBIIBII1B1I1 
BBBBBBPBBfliBBBH 

wmmwmm 
umimmmm 



RAISED BERLIN-WORK. 



27 



out ; and the needleful not always the same length, which 
gives a striped appearance. 

No. 20 French cotton canvas is the "best size for four 
thread Berlin. Nos. 22 and 24 will require the hand to be 
drawn somewhat tighter. 14 and 16 do with eight thread 
Berlin ; and No. 18 may also be used, by a careful worker. 
The coarser sizes need that the stitch should he taken twice 
in at least one direction. No. 8 canvas will want it in both. 
Observe that four thread Berlin, used double, fills up con- 
siderably better than eight thread. 

Raised Berlin-work. — In this, one 
or more prominent objects, in a design, 
are raised ; the remainder being done in 
cross-stitch. Birds, animals, and flowers, 
look handsome when so worked. Do all 
the plain parts first. Then thread nee- 
dles with the various shades you want, 
and obtain fine flat netting meshes. Be- 
gin from the left-hand corner, lowest part, with the proper 
shade, the wool being doubled. Bring the needle up beticee?t 
the two upright threads of the first cross-stitch. Take a 
tapestry-stitch to the left, bringing the 
needle out in the same hole. Put the 

B ,.-.,-..._, wool round the mesh, and take one to 

the right, the needle coming out again 
the same x . Thread round the mesh, 
and take a tapestry-stitch from the hole 
of the last down to the right, the wool to 
the right of it. Thread round. One to 
the right x . A figure Y is thus constantly formed on the 
wrong side. When done, wash at the back with gum ; cut 
the loops, and shear them into shape from the pattern, giving 
proper thickness and form to each part. Sometimes this ia 
done across one thread only. 





28 ARMORIAL BEARINGS. 

Figure and Landscape Patterns. — There is frequently 
great difficulty found in procuring shades of wool proper for 
the faces and limbs in figure pieces. They must always he 
most carefully chosen ; and all these parts should be worked 
hi tent-stitch, while the drapery and other accessories are in 
cross-stitch. This enables you to introduce more shades into 
the flesh-tints ; four stitches in tent being equal to one in 
cross-stitch. The hair may always be worked in floss-silk, and 
the tapestry-stitch, if you can manage the shading, has a 
more flowing effect than any other. For the same reason, 
water ought always to be worked in tapestry-stitch. For 
water, shades of floss silk, in bluish grey, from white to 
nearly black, ought to be used. About five shades, white 
included, will suffice. The different shades of drapery ought 
to be worked according to its fall : for instance, in an upright 
figure, where the drapery must inevitably be perpendicular, 
each shade ought to be worked so. 

If a sky be introduced, it should be worked last, and 
always in tent-stitch. (As a rule, you begin all Berlin work 
from the bottom.) Many workers paint a sky on drawing- 
paper, and fasten it behind the work when framed. This 
may not be very artistic, but it is, at all events, better than 
coiner through the labor of working a sky, unless you have 
skill enough to do it well. Another use to which artistic 
talent may be applied, is to paint the faces and limbs. Good 
white silk is laid over the canvas, on those parts. The sur- 
rounding work boing done, with the stitches taken here and 
there through the silk, it is firmly fixed in its place. Last of 
:ill, the anus, legs, and lares are painted, with almost as rare- 
fnl a finish as ,-i miniature. 

Ai:\ioi:i ai, Bi \i;im,s. These are frequently drawn and 

painted on the oanvas, which is afterwards worked in appro- 
priate oolors, They ought, however, always to be properly 
emblazoned on poinl paper, The size required must be first 



PATTERNS DRAWN ON CANVAS. 29 

settled, and the canvas selected. Then the pattern drawn 
to it. If the design be very elaborate, it will be necessary 
to use very fine canvas. For a simpler pattern, a coarser 
material may be employed. Frequently, the ribbon or 
scroll is worked in cross or tent-stitch, and the molto 
embroidered on it in black silk : but if possible, every part 
should be done in the same stitch. 

Beads are now frequently employed for heraldic devices, 
without the admixture of any other material. I had a sofa 
cushion worked with three plumes and motto (ich dien) of 
the Prince of Wales, which looked extremely beautiful. 

J have mentioned the mode of framing cloth and canvas 
together, when the former is intended to form the ground 
of the design. Of course, its color must be carefully selected, 
with a view to the pattern. No one would choose green of 
any shade, as the ground of a flower piece, which must neces- 
sarily have green leaves coming in contact with it. Black 
so soon looks dusty and dingy, that it is equally undesirable. 
Shades of claret, maroon, or brown, are generally well 
adapted for work. The cloth, also, should be stout. It is a 
great mistake to have a slight one, which, though easier to 
work on, never looks so well. Procure a small quantity of 
wool, exactly the shade of the cloth, and with it fill in any 
small spaces which may occur in the design. This is better 
than removing the canvas. Some workers draw out the 
threads of canvas entirely, after the work is done. I prefer 
cutting them off quite close round the work, which gives it 
a raised, handsome appearance. But to do this, each thread, 
first of the warp, and then of the woof, must be slightly 
drawn up, and cut close, so that when the work is agi in 
drawn smooth, the ends are entirely concealed. The needles 
used are sharp pointed rug needles. 

Patterns drawn on Canvas are more difficult to work 
than from painted designs but with a little care 1 bey may 



BO SILK CANTAS-WORK — TAPESTRY DESIGN'S. 

be managed. The darker tints should be worked first : and 
according to the drawing, without trying to count. But if 
it be anything in which the pattern is repeated, as in the four 
corners of a cushion, do one from the drawn pattern, and 
count the others from it. 

Gem and Set Patterns require generally distinct clear 
colors ; and all gems should be done in silks, thrown up with 
shades of gold (by way of setting), and a rich claret, dark 
green or blue ground. Or black may be used for this pur- 
pose. 

Silk Canvas-work requires care that no threads be 
carried across spaces which are not afterwards to be filled 
up. 

Tapestry Designs are those in which a few bright colors 
only are used, without any attempt at shading. In these the 
design is often in gold color, on a claret, green, or blue 
ground. But a Hue of black ought always to surround the 
gold, or cut it, as it is technically called. Every part of these 
designs looks much better in silk than in wool ; and the 
gold, especially, ought always to be in silk. But if expense 
be a consideration, and the work be in a cross-stitch, the 
first half may be in wool, and the crossing of each stitch 
in silk. If the canvas be coarse, filoselle may be employed, 
instead of crochet silk. To give an idea of this kind of 
work, which is at once easy and effective, I will describe a 
footstool now lying before me. The centre is formed of four 
large golden oak-leaves, their points towards each other, cut 
with black, and grounded with deep blue in a small damask 
pattern. Scrolls of white, cut also with black, surround this 
middle, at a distance, the space between being filled with 
rich crimson. These scrolls form a circle, and the top being 
square, the corners have bunches of shamrocks on a ground 
of a lighter green. A line of golden spots, on a black 
ground, divide, this from the border, which consists of oak- 



CROCHET AND KNITTED BERLIN-WORK. 31 

leaves, in gold, cut with black, filled in below with claret, 
and above with the crimson used in the centre. 

Golden Tapestry Patterns, are designed in three shades 
of gold, with a plain dark ground. Two of the gold shades 
are a sort of brownish yellow, the lightest always yellow 
silk. With claret, blue, or green ground, this style of work 
is very rich and chaste looking. Borders for table-covers 
are especially handsome in it ; and by care with the ground- 
ing it will correspond with any land of furniture. 

Crochet and Knitted Berlin-work. — This term may 
probably be new to many of my readers. The work itself, 
however, is so tedious that it is hardly known except in Ger- 
many, where the ladies possess such rare patience and skill 
in fancy-work, and produce, among other articles, the bead 
purses, on every stitch of which is a seed-bead, forming part 
of an elaborate design, in which perhaps flowers and fruit, 
with their appropriate leaves, or rich arabesques, are seen, 
worked as accurately as if painted by an artist. To do these, 
or anything else in this genre, a proper Berlin pattern must 
be obtained, and on it the beads (always seed, or very small 
No. 3) are threaded in their regular order, as the shades 
appear on the pattern. Of course the slightest mistake 
shows itself on the subsequent working. If the entire work 
is in beads, you have merely to go on, dropping a bead at 
every stitch. If the material on which they are strung is to 
form the ground, you use the pattern again to guide you, 
reversing the direction, in working. I mean, if you begin 
to thread at one end of a pattern, you will begin to work 
from the other extremity. 

If groups or bouquets are worked — as I have done for a 
mat — take care to repeat the bead threading as often as it 
will be needed in the round. Bracelets of this work are 
"beautiful. Choose a rich wreath of roses, of various sorts, 
an/t not more than 25 stitches wide ; and thread the beads 



82 BOBBIN-WORK. 

on fine black silk, which mil form the ground. Do them in 
in crochet; line with ribbon, and fasten with gold clasps. 
In working patterns, when you leave off at the end of every 
row, you may advantageously thread the beads for one row 
at a time. But this cannot be done in continuous rounds. 

I will conclude the instructions for Berlin-work with 
directions for joining canvas, and getting up a finished piece 
of work. 

To join Canvas. — If very fine, lay one piece exactly over 
the other ; tack them together, and work through both at 
once. This is unquestionably the best method for all fine 
work. 

For coarser materials, either back-stitch the two edges, 
thread by thread, and then turn them down ; or sew them 
in an equally careful manner. After this, with white thread 
work a line across the join, in the same stitch as you are 
doing the work. 

To IMPART TO A FINISHED PlECE OF WORK THE EvEN- 

ness and Nice Appearance of Shop-work. — After taking 
it out of the frame, beat it on the wrong side, to get rid of 
dust, and of all loose particles of wool and silk ; and if it be 
drawn on one side, damp it slightly at the back, and stretch 
it again in the frame in the contrary direction. Then take it 
out. Procure a piece of the same canvas, which lay on a 
clean cloth on the table. Over this, face downwards, and 
exactly even with it, lay your work. Lay a damp cloth (not a 
wet one, mind !) over it, and iron it rapidly, and thoroughly. 
Take care, however, that the iron be not too hot for silk, as 
it would take the color. 

BOBBIN-WOUK. -Tins is chk'ily used for children's dress, 
especially for Infants' robes ami hoods; on cambric, fanov 
muslins, and such other materials as are employed for the 
first robes, you use fine bobbin ; on cashmere, merino, ami 

Other WOOllen goods, the coarse silk known as tailors' twisU 



DOUBLE HERRINGBONE-STITCH. 



*0 



No. 1. 



No. 1. Chain-stitch. — Make a knot in the silk, and draw 
the needle through to the right side. Insert the needle 
again in the same place, and draw it out one-eighth or tenth 
of an inch nearer to you, letting the silk form a loop under 
the needle. Draw it out, but not too tightly. Repeat con- 
tinuing, when you will make a stitch exactly like crochet 
or tambour chain. 



H<j % 



JN"o. 2. Herringbone is very generally known. It is sus- 
ceptible of a variety of modifications, for which it will be 
well to refer to the engravings, which will convey a more 
correct idea of their appearance than any written descrip- 
tion. It is impossible, I think, to be puzzled about the 
mode of working. 




No. s. 



T3"o. 3. Double Herringbone-stitch. — Merely a variety 
of the above. 




No. 4 



2* 



84 



LONG BRUSSELS-STITCH— BRAIDING. 



No. 4. — In this the stitches are taken up and down, 
instead of, as is generally the case, along the edge of the 
work. It looks very pretty in fine bobhin. 




No. 5. 



No. 5 is Close Herringbone. — It is worked exactly like 
No. 2, except that each stitch is taken from the last. It 
requires to be worked very evenly and carefully. 




No. 6. 



No. 6 is another variety of Herringbone-stttch, more 
suited for the trimming of pelisses, aprons, etc., for elder 
children, than for infants' robes. It is quickly done, and 
looks very effective. 

Long Brussels-stitch is often used, with advantage, in this 
kind of work ; and two or three rows of it may be employed 
to make a neat and pretty edge to many fancy articles. In 
using any coarse material, such as tailors' twist, or bobbin, 
allowance must be made for the difference, in fixing the size 
of the stitches. It would be absurd to make them as close 
in No. 000 Beading Cotton as in 150 Boars' Head. 

Braiding. -This is usually considered the simplest of all 
the soris of fancy-work. In none, however, are skill and 

knowledge <• apparent. It consists in running braid, 

whether of cotton, worsted, or silk, on any material, in a 



RAISED KKATDING CORD BRAIDING. 35 

certain pattern, already marked on it. The mode of mark- 
ing is described elsewhere. (See Pounced pattern?) Narrow 
braids are those commonly used ; and they may be sewed 
on, if of silk, with threads drawn out of one length, which is 
first cut off, and the strands of which will supply material for 
sewing on the rest of the skein. This, of course, insures the 
silk matching the braid. But I prefer using China silk, if 
procurable to match, as it is somewhat stronger. Tho 
stitches should be taken, not along the centre of the braid, 
but slightly across it, which keeps the edges from curling 
up, and the material from widening. Curves should be 
made by coaxing the braid into the required form; but 
sharp angles should have a stitch or two taken across, not in, 
the braid, to confine its width, after which, the braid is 
turned over. The only exception to this mode of working is 
with any that has the two edges of different colors, as 
alliance braid has. Then points must be made as neatly as 
possible, without turning, as this would put inside the pat- 
tern the color that had been outside. When broad braids 
are put on they are mitred at the point ; that is, so folded 
that the opening of the fold goes straight down the centre. 
Broad braids must be run on at both edges. 

Worsted braids must be run on with fine wool of the same 
colors, and be rather held loosely than at all contracted, for 
any washing material, as they are sure to shrink. All nar- 
row braids should have the ends drawn through to the wrong 
side except in braiding for point lace. (See Point lace.) 

Raised Braiding. — This is sometimes done in worsted 
braid, for such children's dresses as are not washable. The 
braid is sewed along one edge, so that, in fact, it stands up. 
It has a rich and handsome effect, but is troublesome to do. 

Cord Braiding. — Gold and silver cord, or coarse thread, 
Albert braid, and other fancy cords are sometimes used for 
braiding. The ends are always drawn through to the wrong 



36 BEAD BRAIDING- -BEODERIE ANGLAISE. 

side, and the stitches taken across the braid — never through 
it. In the case of gold and silver cord, for which China 
silk, of the same shade, is employed, the stitches are taken 
somewhat slanting, and so that the silk will be partially con- 
cealed, by being sunk between the twists of cord. 

Cotton Braiding is much done, and ought to be in still 
greater favor, for morning collars and sleeves. Narrow close 
woven cotton braid is employed on clear muslin, on which 
the pattern is previously marked. Such articles are usually 
finished with a row of buttonhole-stitch, to which a narrow 
Valenciennes lace is sewed. 

Bead Braiding. — Lines of small beads are often laid on in 
patterns, which have been previously marked for braiding. 
To make the beads set evenly, some care is required. Thread 
two fine needles with silk of the color of the beads. Make a 
knot, and draw one through to the right side of the cloth, 
in the line of the pattern ; and it is always better to begin 
at an angle. On this thread beads. Take the other needle, 
fasten on in like manner, and bring out in the same marked 
line, slightly in advance. With this second needle, take a 
stitch across the thread of the first between every two 
beads, so that not only they are kept in their places, but they 
are prevented from being huddled, which spoils the pattern. 
Bead-braiding is often edged, on one side at least, by a line 
of gold thread, which throws up the beads, and gives them 
a charming effect. 

r>i;oi)i;i:iio Axgi.ajsk. — This term is employed to designate 
(hose kinds of muslin-work in which the effect is produced 
by cutting out or piercing holes, which are afterwards 
Bewed over. If large, or of any form except circular, they 
arc out wit 1 1 fine scissors; if round, they art' made with a 
Btiletto. Every part is first traced^ that is, run in fine 
Btitchea throughout the outlines; and it improves both the 

effect and the durability to hold in a thread o{' hard twisted 



CROCHET. 37 

cotton (Evans' Boar's Head, 8, 10, 16 or 20), and sewing 
over that, as well as the tracing thread and material. The 
stitches should be even and close, but not wrapping over 
each other. The cotton employed is Evans' royal embroi- 
dery, or perfectionne cotton. The size varies with the mus- 
lin or long-cloth on which the design is marked. No. 8, 10, 
and 12 for coarse work, to No. 36 for fine. Patterns given 
in books usually have the proper size of cotton mentioned. 

Beodeeie a la Minute. — A recent style of work, the 
design being done in small dots, one of which, if No. 8 
embroidery cotton be used, will be formed by each stitch. 
The spots look much better, however, if more raised than 
this will make them, and also, if done with finer cotton. 
Another mode of working them will be found in Point 
deposte. 

Bkoderie en Lacet. — I claim to have originated this 
kind of work entirely. The effect, for aprons, bags, and 
many other articles, is most beautiful. A rich braiding 
design being marked on the material, is braided with the 
best Russia silk braid ; and then the flowers filled in, in 
point-lace stitches, with China silk of the color of the braid. 
Of course, the stitches are not so fine as in point-lace ; 
and the least elaborate should be chosen ; but the effect is 
that of very rich yet novel embroidery. The stems and 
narrow parts are filled with hem-stitch. Crimson, scarlet, 
cerise, rich green, and violet, on black silk, look best for this 
purpose. 



CROCHET. 

Crochet has now been for some years one of the most 
popular of all the various sorts of fancy needle-work. The 
beauty and variety of the patterns that can be execute 1 



33 HOLDING THE MATERIALS — WORKING CHAIN. 

from it, have perhaps been the chief cause of the great and 
universal preference manifested for crochet ; but it owes, 
no doubt, also, something to its great durability, and to the 
facility with which a mistake can be remedied, without 
entangling or spoiling the work. In this latter particular, it 
has greatly the advantage of both netting and knitting. 

The implement used is a crochet / a pin, or straight stem 
of steel, bone, or ivory, with a hook at one extremity. 
Sometimes the steel crochets are set in ivory handles. A 
good hook should have the extremity very smooth, and well 
rounded, and even the barb ought not to be too sharp, or it 
will cut the material with which it is employed, especially 
wool or silk. I have never found any that could be com- 
pared, for excellence, with those of Messrs. Boulton & Son, 
of Redditch, England : they are numbered from 12 to 24 
inclusive ; and Nos. 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24, form an excellent 
and useful set, which will last any careful person a lifetime. 
I especially avoid those sold in boxes, with one movable 
handle to many needles. To work with them you had need 
have a degree of patience which rarely, I fear, falls to the lot 
of poor human nature ; while the fingers are sure to be torn 
in a manner that will not easily be forgotten. 

Holding the Materials. — The crochet-needle must be 
held lightly between the fore-finger and thumb of the right 
hand ; the hook horizontal, and parallel with the first finger 
of the left-hand, not with the barb pointing upwards or 
downwards, as is too frequently the case. That part of the 
u ork on which you are immediately employed, is held closely 
between the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand. The 
thread crosses the latter and the middle finger, which is 
kepi ;il .i little distance ; and then is held down by the third 
finger, elose to the middle one. The little linger, only, of 
the Left hand, Lb unemployed. 

WORKING Chain, on Foundation-stitch (ch). — Make a 



SHOET DOUBLE CROCHET — DOUBLE CROCHET. 39 

running loop, near the end of the thread, and draw it up 
Insert the hook in it, and hold the end close to the loop, 
with the left hand, as described. The middle and third fin- 
gers of the left hand being held a little higher than the fore- 
finger, the bar of thread slopes upwards. The hook is in 
front of it. By a slight movement of the left wrist, which 
draws it towards you, you lay the thread across the hook ; 
draw this thread through the loop already made, and you 
will have done one chain. Repeat for any number you 
want. The right hand, it will be observed, thus plays almost 
a passive part ; and the fingers are held far more gracefully 
than when the hook is used more actively. Let me add that 
the work is, at once, better and more even when the proper 
position of the hands has been maintained. 

The other stitches in crochet being named according to 
the depth they add to the work, we will begin with the nar- 
rowest, known as 

Slip-stitch [si). — Having already a loop on the needle, 
insert the hook in a stitch, and draw the thread through 
both together. 

Single Crochet (sc). — Having a loop on the needle 
(which is always supposed to be the case), insert the hooK 
in a stitch, and draw the thread through in a loop. Again 
put the thread over the hook, and bring it through these 
two loops. 

Short Double Crochet (sdc). — before inserting the 
hook in the stitch to be worked, put the thread round it. 
Then draw the thread through the stitch, and you will have 
two loops on, and the thread passed round between them. 
Draw the thread through these three all at once. 

Double Crochet (dc). — Begin exactly like the last, but 
when you have the three loops on, draw the thread through 
two only, leaving one, besides the new stitch. Draw the 
thread through these two together. 



40 LONG TREBLE CROCHET — BEAT!) CHAIN-STITCH. 

Short Treble Crochet (stc). — Put the thread twice 
round the needle, before inserting the hook in the stitch to 
be worked. Having drawn the thread through the latter, 
you have what is equal to four loops on the needle ; draw 
the thread through two ; and then through the remaining 
two, and the loop just made, together. 

Treble Ceochet (tc). — Begin like the last, but draw the 
thread through two loops only at a time ; and as it will take 
you three times to do it, the stitch is called treble crochet. 

Half Long Teeble Ceochet. — A stitch rarely used, is 
formed on the same principle of increase ; the thread is put 
three times round the needle, before its insertion in the 
stitch. You thus have Jive loops when you begin to 
work them off. Work off two ; then two ; then three 
together. 

Long Treble Crochet (Itc). — Similar to the last, but 
working off two only at a time, and thus completing the 
stitch in four movements. 

The sdc, stc, and half long-stitch 

have been invented by myself, and are 

used only in my recipes. They are 

especially useful in forming leaves, 

\&> flowers, and other things where a very 

gradual increase is desirable. How 

perfectly this graduation is obtained, will be perceived in 

the accompanying engraving. 

Braid Chain-stitch. — This stitch makes a pretty braid 
of the kind usually called Grecian plait ; it is useful for 
many purposes. Make two chain: then insert the hook 
in the first of these, without withdrawing it from the 
|c»m]i nlicady on the needle, and bring the next loop 
through l>oili together. After this first fancy-stitch insert 
the hook in the last stitch, always, and draw the thread 
through that, together with tho one already on the needle 




OCTAGONS AND HEXAGONS IN SQUARE CROCT1ET. 41 

In shaded crochet silk this makes a "srery nice braid for pen- 
wipers, and many other purposes. 

Square Crochet is close or open. A close square con- 
sist of three dc stitches, worked on three following stitches 
of the previous row. An open square has one dc, followed 
by two chain, while two corresponding stitches of the last 
row are missed. 1 close, 1 open, square will therefore be 
4 dc, 2 ch, miss 2. It being necessary to close the last 
square, in a row, with a dc stitch, in reckoning the number 
of chain necessary for the foundation of a piece of square 
crochet, multiply the number of squares by three, with 1 
over : thus say a piece has a hundred squares, you will want 
301 chain. 

Long Square Crochet — In which any design intended 
for square crochet may be worked, if required considerably 
larger, has the long stitches in tc. A close square is 4 tc, 
an open, 1 tc, 3 ch, miss 3. Foundation — multiply the 
squares by 4, with 1 over. 

Octagons and Hexagons in Square Crochet. — It is 
often desirable to cut off the corners of pieces of square 
crochet, to suit the design to the shape of a cake-basket or 
other article. The first and last rows, and the edge stitches, 
ought always to be close, in square crochet patterns ; and if 
the design does not so give them, they should be allowed 
for. 

To increase a square at each edge. — Make a loop to begin 
a chain, and, when it is on the needle, draw it as tightly as 
possible. Make one chain after that. Now do two dc in 
the first stitch of the row ; at the other end, do two in 
the last, make a ch; draw the thread through it, and cat 
it off. Begin the next row the same, as to the chain. Do 
2 dc in the ch stitch ; and 2 on the first dc ; also 2 in the 
last dc, 2 in the ch, and make a ch. The slope thus attained 
will be perfectly gradual, and the edges firm and even, * 



42 BIBBED CROCHET — CROCHET CROSS-STITCH. 

The decreasing sides. — This direction serves also for 
edging in square crochet. Of course, one square, or three 
stitches, must be decreased at each end. Slip one stitch, 
sc one, sde one, dc the fourth. Reverse this at the other 
end of the row. In the following ones, do the slip-stitch on 
the first dc, and all must be right. Observe, in square 
crochet patterns, to cut off the thread at the end of the 
row.. Crochet should not be worked backwards and for- 
wards, unless directions are given to that effect. 

Ribbed Crochet. — This crochet appears to be in ridges 
when finished. You work backwards and forwards, always 
putting the needle in front of the chain, instead of the back 
part of the stitch, as in ordinary crochet. When working 
backwards and forwards in sc, a chain must be made at the 
end of every row, to prevent the edge from contracting. In 
dc, two chains ; in tc three. 

Crochet Cross-stitch. — This very simple stitch so exactly 
imitates cross-stitch on canvas, that it would be difficult to 
tell the difference between a piece worked in Berlin-work, 
and one done in crochet of the same pattern. Any Berlin 
design may be done in it, but such should be selected as 
have not many colors. 

Make an ordinary chain-stitch, and work on it one row of 
single crochet for a foundation. Cut off your thread, and 
begin again at the same end as the last row, which must 
always be done in this stitch. 

Put a loop of thread on the hook, then insert it under the 
sides <•<" the chain which runs along the edge of the work. 
Lay it over the cotton, so as to take it up on the contrary to 
the usual way. Draw it, through the work. Then again 




PRINCESS FREDERICK WILLIAM STITCH. 



43 



WH 



draw the thread through the two loops now on the needle. 
This completes the stitch, and has simply to be repeated 
through the length of each row. It must be done very regu- 
larly to produce the proper effect. 

Princess Frederick William Stitch. 
— A new stitch in crochet has recently 
been given to the world, which I call, in 
compliment to our English royal bride, 
the Princess Frederick William crochet. 
It is done with a hook having a knot at 
the end, and somewhat larger than those 
usually employed, in proportion to the 
material to be worked. Being very solid, 
it is especially suitable for shawls, com 
forters, opera cloaks, and other similar 
articles. Begin by making an ordinary 
chain, of the required length. Keep on 
the last loop, which will make the first of 
next row. Insert the hook in the next, 
and bring the thread through, with a 
loop on the needle. Work every chain 
so to the end, when all your loops will be 
on the needle. 

2c? How. — Put the thread round the 
hook, and bring it through once. After 
this put the thread round and bring it 
through two every time, till one stitch 
only is left, which will form the first of 
the following row. 

3c? Moio. — Insert your work in each 
upright loop of thread (see engraving), 
and bring the thread through in a loop. 
Work so to the end of the row, when once more you will 
have all the stitches on the needle. 



44 TO USE SEVEEAL COLOES IN CEOCHET. 

To decrease at the beginning of a row, in this stitch, 
draw the thread through 2 instead of 1, the first time. In 
any other part of the work, draw it through an extra stitch, 
as 3, instead of 2. 

Bead Crochet. — Doyleys, and many other articles are 
rendered very brilliant and beautiful by having the design 
worked in glass beads, of various colors, threaded on the 
cotton. As they wash and wear very well, these articles are 
as serviceable as handsome. Generally one color, ruby, coral, 
emerald, or turquoise, is used ; if two or more be employed, 
each color must be threaded on a separate reel of cotton ; 
the cottons are then used like colored silks in purses (see 
To crochet with several colors), the beads being dropped in 
their places, as the design may require. Always draw the 
loop through the stitch, before slipping up the bead to its 
place. A chain or sc stitch takes one bead ; a dc, hco / a 
tc, three. The beads are always dropped on the wrong side 
of the work, which iu this is right. Select beads that slip 
without difficulty, but still do not run over the cotton ; and 
the less bulky they are, the better. Some are so fat (I can 
use no other word), in proportion to the hole, that they are 
quite unfit for crochet work. (See Beads.) 

To use Seveeal Colors in Crochet. — Silks and wools are 
chiefly employed in this way. Each skein of silk must be 
wound on a reel, and these reels should be set on a stand 
made for the purpose, to prevent the silks from tangling. 
The stand is a heavy piece of wood with iron pins set at. 
intervals. Each one is used as required ; only in changing, 
you begin to use the new color in finishing the last stitch of 
i lie previous one. Thus, suppose the direction was, three 
while, two blue, live black: you would do two perfect white, 
and draw t lie thread through for the next slitch in the same; 
but finish the atitch in blue. Then one and a half blue, and 
finish witli blaok. Several colors are rarely employed 



TO MARK THE COMMENCEMENT OF A ROUND. 45 

together in anything but sc ; some people leave the threads 
of silk loose at the back ; but if there be not too many, it is 
always preferable to work them in ; that is, to hold them 
along the finger, just above the work, so that the loop being 
drawn through the stitch from behind them, closes them in. 
If many colors are used together, this is, however, clumsy. 

To WORK PROM THE CENTRE, AS IN STOOL COVERS, DoT- 

leys, etc. — In such articles, every round has, of course, more 
stitches than the previous one. In single crochet, eight 
extra in every round will be a right increase. Thus, you 
begin with eight ; 2d round, 16 ; 3d, 24 ; 4th, 32 ; and so 
on. It is better that these extra stitches be make by chains 
at regular intervals, than by doing two stitches in one of the 
previous round. Of course, there must never be two chains 
together. By this method you avoid making holes, as is 
often done in the usual way. In all directions where three 
stitches are to be worked on two of the previous round, one 
ought to be worked, then a ch between, then the other 
stitch. 

In designs in dc, or tc, to pass from one round to another 
Without breaking the thread, make 3 ch for a dc, 4 for 
a tc stitch, and twist it round ; this gives the chain the 
appearance of the stitch desired. Suppose the directions be 
1 dc, 3 ch, therefore, you would make 3 dc, twist them, 
then make the other three. 

Missing. — Unless directions are given to the contrary, it 
is to be understood, in crochet designs, that a stitch is 
worked on every stitch of the previous row ; and that a 
stitch of the former row is missed for every chain made. 
Thus, if the direction be 2 dc, 2 ch, you would, of course, 
do the next dc on the third stitch from the last, unless 
especially ordered otherwise. 

To mark the Commencement of a Round. — It is essen- 
tial, but sometimes difficult to do this, in jewelled doyleys, 



46 CROCHET BEAD JEWELRY. 

and similar things. I take a few inches of thread, contrast- 
ing in color with the work, and draw it through the last 
stitch of each of the first few rounds, as well as at intervals 
afterwards. It is a great help. 

To join on. — In sc, finish the stitch with the new cotton, 
as in taking another color. Then hold in both the ends, and 
work them, in for an inch or so. In any close crochet, do the 
same. In open crochet, make a weaver's knot, which allows 
of the ends being cut off quite close. 

Diamond Open-hem. — This forms a very pretty and use- 
ful heading for edgings ; and will serve many other purposes 
also. Begin as for a long treble, with the thread three times 
round the needle. Work off two loops, or half the stitch. 
Put the thread twice more round, miss two, insert the hook 
in the third, and work off one loop as usual ; at the next 
movement of the needle, instead of two take off three loops. 
Finish the stitch, do two chain to correspond with the two 
missed. Work a dc stitch on the centre of the long stitch, 
putting the hook through the two loops which were drawn 
off together. This makes one pattern ; and you do not miss 
any between it and the next. "A sc row should always 
follow this. 

Crochet Bead Jewelry. — Exceedingly pretty brace- 
lets and chains may be made of pound beads, No. 3, worked 
in croehot. Choose rubies, turquoise, or any other beads 
that imitate gems. Thread them on line silk of the same 
color, and work in ordinary single crochet, dropping a bead 
ob every stitch. For a chain, make a foundation of fifteen 
stitches, ami close into a round; for :i bracelet, thirty-six 
stiiclirs will not be too many. You work round and 
round, until you have done the length you wish. The silk 
being exceedingly elastic, would stretch out of all bounds, 

Were it no! kepi LI] place by S COrd run inside. 1 employ 

several lengths of Fleecy, or double Berlin, out as lone,- as 



IMBEOinERY. 47 

the work is without stretching, for this purpose ; running it 
in with a bodkin, and fastening it to the crochet at both 
ends. Wool is of so soft yet elastic a quality, that it pre- 
vents the crochet from flattening, as it otherwise would do. 
To bracelets I add tassels, made also of beads. (See Tassels.) 
A round necklace clasp is what I use for fastening brace- 
lets, covering it Avith a wooden ball, over which beads are 
closely woven to conceal its substance. If you work in 
black or dark beads, dip the ball in ink, to stain it, before 
using. 

I may here appropriately mention a set of mourning 
ornaments I once made for a friend, who wished to have 
something very unique. The chain was made as already 
described, and served to suspend a massive cross of balls, 
covered with beads, woven over, like O. P. bead-work. One 
bracelet, being very thick, was a single round ; the other, 
somewhat 'smaller, was double the length, and twisted 
together. Both had handsome tassels. A brooch, to match, 
completed the set. 



EMBROIDERY. 

Perhaps of all the various kinds of fancy-work, 
with the exception of point lace, this may be considered 
the most artistic. The materials are velvet, satin, kid 
or cloth, with silks, chenilles, gold bullion, and gold and 
silver thread. The design is first marked, in outline, on the 
article to be ornamented; and to do this a pounced pattern 
is prepared, and then transferred to the material. (See 
Pounced patterns.) It is then put in a frame and stretched, 
like canvas. We will now suppose, for the convenience of 
description, that the design is a group of roses and morning 
glories. Select the proper colors of silk, Dacca being that 



*8 EMBROIDERY. 

chiefly employed. Yellow-greens will be wanted for the 
rose-leaves, pinks for the flowers, blue-gi*een for the morning 
glory leaves, and blues, pale pinks, and violet for the flowers. 
If there be any morning glory buds, they have something of 
a curled appearance. The corolla of the morning glory, as we 
know, is formed of a single cup-like petal. There is, there- 
fore, no break in the working, but that part which falls back 
towards the stem is always the darkest. AU the stitches are 
taken from the centre of the flower ; and when the dark and 
somewhat pointed streaks occur, the silk must be changed 
accordingly. A long stitch, something like that of Irish 
embroidery, is used, and they must he side by side very 
evenly. As of course the inner circle is much smaller than 
the outer one, some of the stitches must be made shorter. 
The great art is to make them he evenly, and to produce a 
clear, even, well-defined edge. The large leaves may be 
worked from the centre-vein to the edge, in the same way. 
The veinings are done in silk a shade darker, and in half- 
polka stitch ; that is, one stitch of the eighth of an inch is 
taken, somewhat slanting, the next from the side of it, but 
double the length, sloping always in the same direction ; all 
the following ones, of the length of the last, half beside it 
and half beyond. Stems are done in the same way ; but for 
broad ones, the stitches are taken more directly across. The 
roses are worked petal by petal ; and if the centre of the 
flower is seen, it must be represented in a few French knots, 
done in yellow silk. The leaves are in yellow-green, the 
edges carefully serrated; the centre vein, like that of tho 
morning glory. The very s nail leaves may bo worked com- 
pletely aoi'OSS, without any veining. To represent (lie Colds 
of (lie morning glory bud, work e:i b fold separately. The 
stems of roses slioiiM lie in ;i brownish green, especially for 

moss-roses, ami t lu- thorns marked by short stitches starting 
on each side from thorn. It is always desirable to work 




i$OU»& & I'lTIiBMLD. IIW^III. 



RAISED AND DAMASK EMBROIDERY. 49 

either from a piece already done, or from a painting. 
Shaded silks are often employed with good effect in working 
leaves and flowers; but as crochet silk, which is somewhat 
hard, must be used (for Dacca is not made shaded), it is well 
to take out one strand of each needleful, which makes it 
work much softer. In using shaded silks, be careful to join 
on every new needleful to match the shade with which you 
left off. 

French Knots. — These are much used in Chinese em- 
broidery; and in French and English, for the centres of 
flowers, and some other purposes. Bring the needle up in 
the place where you want the knot to be. Twist the silk 
twice round the needle, which insert in the same place again, 
and draw it gradually through, guiding the silk with the 
left hand, that it may not tangle. The knot is then formed. 

Raised Embroidery. — Sometimes embroidery is raised. 
This is done by tacking down soft embroidery cotton over 
the space to be worked, the centre being the most raised, 
and the edges gradually thinned. The stitches are then 
taken across this, so as completely to cover it. If well 
shaped, the bodies of animals or birds look most natural 
done in raised embroidery; but the stitches must not be 
taken across, but through, in exactly the same way as Irish 
stitch, the half of one coming between every two, by which 
means any number of shades requisite for the color of the 
animal may be obtained. 

Embroidery in gold ought always to be thus raised, espe- 
cially for church-work, yellow floss silk being the material 
used. 

Damask Embroidery is the term applied to patterns 
worked over gold braid, straw beading, or silk braid. 
Either of these materials forms the pattern, the wool or 
silk the ground. The design is either set — that is, done by 
counting threads — or it is marked on the canvas w : th ink ; it 

3 



50 KNITTED EMBROIDERY. 

may then consist of leaves, flowers, or any other simple pat- 
tern. Suppose the pattern to he marked on canvas, for a 
pair of slippers. Begin at the toe. Cut off a piece of braid, 
rather more than long enough to go across it. Rim it on 
with silk of the same color. And, hy the way, it is always 
necessary that the hraid should cover two threads of canvas, 
within a hair's-hreadth. Take the wool or silk, and with 
stitches across the hraid, and consequently across two 
threads of canvas in height, hut not crossing any in width, 
cover all those parts which form the ground, leaving the 
braid uncovered for the pattern. Line after line is worked 
thus, until the whole is completed. None of the leaves 
ought to be very large ; but, if desired, they may be veined 
in embroidery-stitch, with silk of a tint one shade darker 
than the braid. Crimson silk, or blue, or green, with gold 
braid ; or, for a wedding-gift, white, with gold braid, looks 
very rich for slippers. Filoselle is the proper silk to 
employ. 

Knitted Embroidery. — I believe this beautiful kind of 
work is not done, to any extent, except by the peasants of 
the Pyrenees. It well deserves, however, to become more 
popularly known. It consists of knitting patterns, more o» 
less complex (that is containing fewer or more varieties of 
wool, on a black or white ground), in the ordinary knitting 
stitch, one row plain and the next purled. The richest pat- 
terns are produced in tins way. Groups of flowers, wreaths, 
and almost any design that can be painted on Berlin paper, 
can be thus copied in knitting. To do an elaborate group 
would require long practice and great dexterity, as the 
wools are apt 1<> become entangled. But it is comparatively 
easy to form a pretty simple pattern, in one oolor on a 
ground of another. Any square orochel running pattern, 
er, or group will <lo. Wind the wools on spools, 

lightly indeed, hut so that you can prevent them from 



FLUTED EMBROIDERY. 51 

unwinding. Whenever you come to a close crochet stitch, 
do it in colored wool, and the open squares in white. Avoid 
dragging each wool, when you resume it, after using the 
other. This is the great difficulty. Of course, if you do, the 
work puckers, and the greater the number of wools, the 
greater the difficulty. 

Another way of producing the effect is, to do the knitting 
in the ground color, and darn in the pattern in a stitch pre- 
cisely resembling that of the knitting. There is no difficulty 
in this, but it is not, certainly, the orthodox way. 

In the Pyrenees, scarfs, shawls, mantles, aprons, slippers — 
almost every imaginable article of dress is knitted in this 
manner, in their fine wool. (See Pyrenees wool, Mate- 
rials.) The exquisite softness of velvet is perfectly imi- 
tated by these fabrics. The shawls, not unfrequently, are 
with an open ground, such as the Pyrenees diamond knit- 
ting, and bouquets at intervals. To do this they knit as 
many stitches as are required for the bouquet, in plain stitch, 
resuming the fancy stitch after these are done ; and, of 
course, carrying the fancy stitch completely across the 
shawl, after each row of bouquets is done. This also might 
be managed as I have suggested. 

Another Knitted Embroidery is shnply working, in cross- 
stitch, any pattern, or coarse knitting done garter fashion. 
The stitches are taken over the ribs. Small chintz patterns 
with very bright and distinct colors, and not too many of 
them, are well suited to this work ; and pine or palm pat- 
terns maintain in it their characteristic elegance and beauty. 
It is chiefly employed in Fleecy, or 8 thread Berlin, for 
couvre-pieds, quilts, and cushions. 

Fluted Embroidery is a variety of orne wool-work, the 
wool being of the same kind as that used for orne crochet 
and knitting, but worked on canvas. The canvas is of a 
sage green tint, resembling railway canvas, and with a 



32 GOTPUEE-WOEK. 

colored thread woven in at the halves and quarters of a 
square, as a guide in working. The wool is so dyed that 
each ball makes one perfect piece of work, always bearing a 
rich and beautiful floral design, on a handsome plain ground. 
As great exactness in working is requisite, a knot will be 
formed at the end of each length which serves for one row 
of the canvas; and it must be made to do. The term fluted 
is used because each line being worked over a cord, on both 
right and wrong side, it does, in fact, appear fluted. The 
stitch is a peculiar one ; and each piece of work is, or ought 
to be, begun and prepared for the worker when sold. One 
row is always left partly done, as a guide. In commencing 
mother, find the exact middle of the next needleful of wool, 
und having fixed on a cord, as you will have seen in the 
last rows, begin in the centre of the row. Work to the 
right ; and when a quarter is done, measure the remainder 
of the half of wool, to see whether you have still a fourth 
left. If not, slacken or tighten the previous stitches. Finish 
that half of the line. Thread again at the middle, and do 
the other half. When this row is done, turn on the other 
side, fix another cord, and repeat the process. 

Both sides are alike in this work, so that it is very durable, 
for one side is new when the other is soiled. It is also 
noticeable that the tints brighten considerably with age, 
provided they are kept free from dust. A piece of fluted 
embroidery is just the size for a handsome cushion. The 
designs are numbered, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Every piece of 
work is accompanied with an excellent engraving of the 
design, serving to give an i<le:i of the ultimate result, and as 
a guide In the worker. 

(ii iim re-woek. This term is applied to all those open 
ground-works which have been so common, of late years, in 
muslin and lace work. It is done is all muslin-work by 
borSj the most beautiful of which are worked in buttonhole* 



IRISH GUIPURE. 53 

stitch, on a lino of thread. They are either straight lines, 
crossing each other at angles, in large spaces, or they radiate 
out from eyelet-holes, worked round in buttonhole stitch, 
which is still richer looking. Of course, in covering these 
bars with close buttonhole stitch, there is a good deal of 
work ; and some people save themselves that trouble by sub- 
stituting bars o very narrow cotton braid, or coarse thread. 
If either of these be used, care must be taken to secure the 
bars in the subsequent working of the pattern. You take a 
length of thread or braid (say one and a half yards), and 
carry it backwards and forwards, in the directions in which 
the bars are marked, until you have used it up ; when you 
take another piece. Neither of these can be compared, in 
effect, to the buttonhole bars ; but thread is preferable to 
braid ; and No. 000 Evans' Beading Cotton, or No. 4 Boars' 
Head will be proper for the purpose. All the groundwork, 
in any case, must be done the first, after tracing out the 
design. 

Guipure lace-work is used for the grounding of Honiton 
lace, and, also, with good effect for fine muslin-work. It has 
the merit of wearing extremely well. It consists of long 
buttonhole-stitches, taken at fully one-fourth of an inch, and 
twisted twice after every stitch, so that the depth is nearly 
equal to the length. One line is worked on another, until 
the entire ground is so filled in, the sprigs being connected 
with the bars whenever you come to them. Very fine 
thread is used. 

Guipure net is a net imitating guipure grounds. (See Nets.) 
Irish Guipure, or imitation of point lace in crochet, is a 
most tedious and complicated sort of work, consisting of 
heavy flowers, arabesques, and other designs, connected by 
bars meant to look like Raleigh. That it is a miserable 
affair, by the side of the original work, no one will doubt. 
It is handsome enough, however, in its way. As each 



54 HONITON EACE. 

design must be worked stitch by stitch according to the 
directions given with it, it would be useless to enter on any 
extended explanation of its intricacies here. 

Honiton Lace, imitated in Ceochet. — Those who are 
fond of crochet may imitate very admirably, almost any 
ordinary specimen of this beautiful lace, and produce collars 
and sleeves of exquisite appearance, at a trifling cost. The 
ordinary stitches, only, are employed, with the aid of Hen- 
riquez or Cordovan lace, or English spots, all of which are 
frequently seen to fill lip flowers, in the real Honiton. As 
each flower and sprig is made separately, and completely 
finished off by itself, this kind of work, occupying no space, 
is very convenient in company. Each sprig should be put 
away until the requisite number is collected. Then the bor- 
der or edging must be worked, in one piece ; for which pur- 
pose, you must decide on the shape and size of the article to 
be worked. When completed, you make them up, either 
by guipuring, or on a foundation of Brussels net, in the same 
way as you would transfer. 

It improves the appearance of some patterns, to work a 
line of very fine Sorrento, with Evans' No. 150 Boar's Head, 
on all the outlines, after the collar, or other article, is 
made up. 

Believing this to be one of the prettiest and most useful 
varieties of crochet, I give, in a subsequent part of this 
work, patterns of sprigs, with directions for working, and 
an illustration of the mode of making up. Tin 1 greater part 
of the flowers will be found figured in parts. These figures 
indicate the number of chain. I have adopted this method 
of engraving, as less trying to the worker than the usual one, 
with long directions. A fine purl edge should finish every 
collar, or other piece of imitation Honiton. 



KNITTING POSITION OF THE HANDS. 65 



KNITTING. 

This elegant art cannot fail to hold a high place among 
what may he termed the Manual Accomplishments of ladies, 
from the beauty, variety, and durability of the articles 
fabricated, not less than from the extreme facility of execu- 
tion. It is well known that persons who are totally blind, 
as well as the aged, and those whose sight is weak, can pro- 
duce knitting as delicate in texture and perfect in design as 
is done by those whose eyes are perfectly strong. This 
alone will always render knitting a popular amusement. It 
is true that those whose visual organs are strong, frequently 
employ them as much in knitting as in crochet, netting, or 
even lace-work. This is wrong. No one can tell how soon 
she may have to deplore feeble sight, or even total blindness. 
Age, at all events, will come to most of us, when the eyes 
are sure to becomo dim ; and when we can practise even 
one art, with accuracy, and comfort to ourselves, without a 
light, we have gained a resource which very few women 
will not find a thousand occasions of appreciating. Knitting 
is, therefore, either a toil or a pleasure. To render it the 
latter, attention must be paid to the position of the hands, 
and the uses to which the fingers are applied. The imple- 
ments are simple ; either two, four, or five needles (some- 
times called pins). The one on which the stitches are to be 
transferred, is held in the right hand ; the work itself, and 
other needle or needles, in the left. In acquiring the proper 
mode of holding the needles, especially the left-hand one, 
you lay the foundation for becoming a rapid, and an elegant 
knitter ; and a little attention and practice will quickly enable 
you to work any but a very complicated pattern without 
looking at it ; a point which every knitter ought to aim at. 

Position of the Hands. — The right-hand needle should 



R6 CASTING ON. 

be laid over the hand, between the thumb and forefinger ; 
the thumb should be trained to keep close to the needle 
always, not to move with every stitch. The thread crosses the 
nail of the forefinger, which is held near the needle, a little 
in advance of the last stitch, and so that it moves with the 
greatest ease. The thread goes under the second and third 
fingers, and round the little one, which, as it were, regidates 
the supply, keeping it from being either too loose or too 
tight for the work. The left-hand needle is held, near the 
point, between the thumb and second finger. The thumb 
should slightly press the first stitches, so as to keep them 
from slipping off" the needle ; the finger should hold the 
needle a little lower down; and it is further kept in its 
place by the pressure of the third and little fingers, which 
hold it firmly against the edge of the pahn. The forefinger 
has hitherto not been mentioned. Its oflice is to feel each 
stitch, with its delicate and sensitive tip, and push it up to 
the point of the needle, ready to be knitted. By coming to au 
understanding with this most useful member, you will soon 
find that it will keep you perfectly informed of the nature 
of the stitch next to be knitted (whether a purl, a knitted, 
or a made stitch, etc.), and its susceptibility may be culti- 
vated until you can perform the most delicate work as well 
in the dark as in the light. 

If four or five needles be employed, the two absolutely in 
use must be held as described ; the others naturally tall 
below the left hand. If two very long needles are used, you 
will hold the right-hand one under your hand, and pressed 
closely against the side. 

Casting ox. — The first prooess in knitting is called cast- 

ing On, It is dune with two needles. Make a loop, like a 
slip-knot, near the end of your thread, insert the needle, 
draw it up nearly tight, and hold the needle in the Ivft hand. 
Take the other in the light hand, holding it, and the thread, 



TWIST AND TWIST PURL-STITCH. 57 

as directed. Put the point in the stitch already made, 
x , move the fingers of the right hand, so as to carry the 
thread round the point of this needle, which then draw 
slightly down, and towards you, so as to make the thread 
into a loop. There is now one on each needle. Put the 
rh (right-hand) needle point behind the other, which insert 
into the new loop, without withdrawing the right hand. 
Repeat from the x , until you hare the required number on 
the left-hand needle. If four needles are Used, the stitches 
are cast on three. You then cast as many as may be 
ordered on each, and to close into a round, knit the two 
first stitches off, on to the last needle, afterwards. This 
must always be allowed for. Thus, if there are to be 24 on 
each of three needles, put 26 on the first, and 22 on the last. 
When the two are knitted off, to close the round, the num- 
bers will be correct. 

To Knit (k). — Holding the hands precisely as already 
described, insert the rh needle in the stitch to be knitted, 
put the thread round by the movement of the fingers, and 
drawing the needle down, and towards you, let the thread 
just put round it form a loop. Then the one from which it 
was knitted drop off the point of the lh needle. 

To Purl or Pearl (j>). — The hands as before, but the 
thread in front of the work. Insert the needle, downwards, 
and in front of the lh one ; put the thread round, from the 
back to the front again, draw the needle back to form the 
loop, and then slip the last stitch off the lh needle. 

Slip -stitch. — Transfer the stitch from one needle to 
another without knitting. 

Twist-stitch (ho). — A stitch pretty enough to be used 
more frequently than it is. Instead of knitting in the ordi- 
nary manner, insert the needle in the bach of the stitch to 
be knitted, after which knit as usual. 

Twist Purl-stitch (twp) — In working backwards and 

3* 



58 TO RAISE A STITCH — MODES OF DECREASING. 

forwards, it is needful the purl stitch correspond with the 
knitted. Hold the rh needle nearly parallel with that in 
left hand, and behind it. Insert the point in the stitch, and 
bring it out, with that of the left hand. Now purl as 
usual. 

To Make Stitches (m). — To make one stitch, bring the 
thread in front merely, if the next stitch be knitted ; or 
bring it forward and put it round the needle, if followed by 
a purl stitch. Besides this, put the thread once, twice, or 
oftener round, if two, three, or more are to be made. 
Observe, in knitting the following row, that every twist 
of the thread over the needle reckons as a stitch ; and that, 
if there be two, or more, they must be alternately plain and 
purled knitting. 

To make many stitches at once, in a row, by casting on, 
transfer the right-hand needle to the other hand. Then 
twist the thread round the forefinger of the right-hand, to 
make a loop. Bend your finger round, to give it a further 
twist, and slip on to the needle. Make any number ordered, 
which, of course, makes a large hole. Some knitters cast on 
in this way, but I do not advise it. 

To Raise a Stitch. — This occurs where three stitches 
have to be made, without producing the hole seen in the 
ordinary method. Make one, by bringing the thread in front ; 
now take up, and knit, as an ordinary stitch, the bar of 
thread between the stitches on the two needles ; again bring 
the thread in front, to make another. Thus three extra ones 
are obtained. 

Modes of Decreasing — k 2 t. — This is the simplest 
method. You merely knit two stitches, as if they were one. 

P 2 T. — Purl two as one. JP 2 t reverse, is to take them 
together from the baok. (See Twist pur! stitch) 

P 8 T. — Purl three as one, P3t reverse, slip 2 t, from 
the buck, p 1. pass slip over. 



TO CLOSE THE TOE OF A SOCK, ETC. 59 

Sl 1, k 1, pass slip over. — This has a different effect to 
that of knitting two together. In closing diamonds (see 
Diamond jpatter?i), this ought to be employed for the first 
decrease, and the other mode for the second, in each pat- 
tern. 

K 3 t. — Unless directions to the contrary are given, you 
always should do this by slipping two off together, k the 
third, and pass the two slip together over. Otherwise, knit 
three as one. 

K 4 t. — SI 1, k 3 together, and pass the 'slip-stitch 
over. It rarely occurs that .more than four are decreased 
together. 

To join. — A weaver's knot, which allows the ends to be 
cut off quite closely, is the best ; or a stitch may be knitted 
with the new thread, and then a few with both. The ends 
then fastened off. In lace or insertion, use the former 
method, at the straight edge. 

To cast off. — K 2, pass the one first knitted over the 
other; k 1, pass the preceding one over it, and so on. The 
number passed over are reckoned as cast off ; one more 
than the number has always been knitted. 

To CLOSE THE ToE OF A SOCK, THE FlNGER OF A GlOVE, 

etc. — Divide the number of stitches equally on to two 
needles. Should there be an odd one, let it be on the front 
needle. See that the stitches lie properly — that is, that all 
those forming the upper part of the sock (supposing that 
one is to be finished) are on one needle, and those of the sole 
on the other. Knit two stitches, one off each needle, as 
one ; or the odd one alone, if there be such. Again knit 
two together ; pass the first over the second, as in ordinary 
casting off; and continue so, always taking a stitch from 
each needle as one. When one only is left, cut off the? 
thread a few inches from the work, and draw the end 
through the stitch. Fasten it off on the wvoncc side. 



60 DIAGONAL OPEN-HEM. 

Having now described the actual stitch, I will proceed tA 
give some patterns, which my readers will he able readily to 
adapt for themselves to any article they may desire to make, 
whilst it will also save space and time, by enabling me to 
refer to them in my own recipe. 

Brioche-stltch. — The number of stitches cast on -must be 
divisible by 3 without a remainder, xml, si 1, k 2 t. x 
repeat to the end. Every row is the same. 

Double Knitting. — Useful especially for articles designed 
for warmth ; as couvre-pieds, blankets for the cots of infants, 
etc. An even number of stitches, with six or eight for bor- 
der. Corresponding to these do half the number of plain 
knitted rows, at each end. The three or four border 
stitches, at each edge, to be always knitted. Pattern, 
thread in front, slip one, as if for purling, thread back, knit 
.one. Thus, in each row, every alternate stitch only is knit- 
ted, and the result is that the two sides of the work are per- 
fectly distinct, united only at the edges. 

Double Herringbone. — Divisible by 4 with 2 over. K 2, 
k 2 t, m 1, x k 2 t at the end. 

Or divisible by 3 with 1 over at each edge. K 1 x k 1, 
k 2 t, m 1. x k 1. 

Single Herringbone. — 4 stitches for.l line, 7 for 2, 10 
for 3, and so on, besides the edge-stitch, which must be 
knitted. K 2, m 1, k 2 t. Second and following linos, k I 
(which is always the made stitch of last row), m 1, k 2 t. 

Open-hem. — Divisible by 3, with edge-stitches, which 
in i it be purled. 

[ 8 t EoHo.—V I, in 1, k 2 t. x. 

>_>,/ Row.— Purled. 

Diagonal Open-hem. — Divisible "by 2, with at least two 
edge-stitches at each edge. 

l8t A'"" 1 . — K 2. X m 1, slip 1, k 1, pass tb.6 sli|> Btitch over 
X repent, k '_'. 



MOSS-STITCH — DAMASK PATTERN'S. CI 

2c? and 4 Lh Mows. — Purled. 

3c? Mow. — K 3. x m 1, slip 1, k 1, pass the slip-stitch over. 
X at the last ; slip one over the first ec7^e-stitch. 

These four rows complete the pattern. It may be done 
on four needles, in which case, the alternate rows are knitted. 
It is very pretty for cuffs, sleeves, and many other purposes, 
where the work is intended to look puffed out : but as it 
always has a twist in it, it must not be enrployed for any flat 
or square article. 

Moss-stitch. — Any number of stitches may be used for 
this work ; and I may remark that it is the one in which all 
the orne knitting is done. It consists simply of knitted and 
purled stitches. One of each is done alternately ; and in 
working backwards and forwards, you will take care to 
begin always with the same kind of stitch as that with which 
you terminated the last row, which, of course, will look dif- 
ferent. It has a pretty dotted appearance ; and in the 
variegated wools, looks really very soft and mossy. 

Damask Patterns. — A great variety of patterns may be 
made by the combination of the knitted and purled stitches 
only. Thus, a Chess-boaed Pattern may be formed by 
knitting and purling, alternately, an equal number of stitches ; 
knitting the purled, and purling the knitted, in the back 
rows, so that they look as they would if you were working 
rotcnd, and knitted on the knitted, and so on. Then, after 
as many rows as you have knitted or purled stitches, reverse 
them, for as many more. Or a Half-diamond may be made, 
thus : x P 1, k 1. x to the end, which finish with p 1. 

2c? Mote. — x k 2, p 5, k 1. x . End with k 2. 

3c? Mow. — P 3, k 3, p 2. x . End with p 3. 

4th Mow. — x k 4, p 1, k 3 x . End with k -i. 

This is half the pattern. Do the four rows again, knitting 
those you have purled, and purling what you did knit. Any 
lady with a little ingenuity can make a number of such pat- 



62 DIAMOND KNITTING. 

terns, wlu3h are applicable to many purposes ; especially foi 
counterpanes, doyleys, cake-basket doyleys, and all solid 
articles. 

Spot-stitch. — Divisible by 4. xk 1 always, p 1, k 2 x . 

2d Bote. — Plain. 

3d Moid. — x k 3, p 1. x . 

4th Mow. — Plain. 

Thus, every second stitch is purled once in four rounds ; 
and every two thus treated, have the purl-stitch alternately. 
Used for gloves. 

Pyrenees Diamond Knitting. — (Very suitable for Shet- 
land shawls.) The number of stitches cast on must be divi- 
sible by 3, exclusive of any border or edging, of which there 
should be at least two stitches at each edge purled every 
row. 

1st, Mow. — xm 1, si 1, k 2, pass the slip-stitch over. x. 
Repeat to the end. 

2d, 4th, and 6th Hows. — purled. 

3d Moiv. — K 2, x m 1, si 1, k 2, pass slip over, x as 
often as possible. End with m 1, and purl the final stitch, 
together with the first of those forming the edge. 

5th Mow. — K 1. x m 1, si 1, k 2, pass slip over, x repeat 
to within 2 of the end. M 1, si 1, k 1, pass slip over 

Repeat these six rows, observing that the first knitted 
stitch is always the one over the hole of last row. The 
needles employed in this pattern ought to be somewhat 
large in proportion to the material used. No S with 4 
thread Berlin wool; No. 10 with Shetland. Other things 
in proportion. 

Diamond Knitting. — The number of stitches divisible by 
six, with 1 over, exclusive of edges. Purl the edge-stitches 
in the pattern rows, and all the alternate rows. 

\st Mow. — x k ], in ], k 2 t, k i, k 2 t, m l. x repeal as 
often as you havo sixes east on, K 1. 



DIAMOND KNITTING. 63 

Sd Mow. — x k 2, m 1, k 3 t, m 1, k 1.x repeat as 
before. K 1. 

5th Mow. — xk 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1, m 1, k 2 t. x repeat 
as before. K 1. 

1th Mow. — K 2 t. x m 1, k 3, m 1, k 3 t. x . Repeat till 
5 are left ; then, m 1, k 3, m 1, k 2 t. 

These four pattern rows, with the alternate purled ones, 
make one complete design, and must be repeated. 

Spider-net Knitting. — Stitches divisible by four, and 1 
over, exclusive of edges, to be purled as before. 

1st Mow. — x k 1, m 1, si, k 2 t, pass slip-stitch over; 
m 1. x repeat to the end. K 1. 

2c? Mow. — Purled. 

3c? Mow. — K 2 t, x m 1, si 1, k 2 t, pass slip-stitch over ; 
m 1, k 1. x repeat till 2 are left. M 1, k 2 t. 

4th Mow. — Purled. 

These four rows make a pattern. 

Large Diamond Knitting. — Stitches in eights ; with 1 
over, besides the edges, which must be purled. 

1st Mow. — x k 1, m 1, k 2 t, k 3, k 2 t, m 1. x finish 
with k 1. 

2c? and 4th Mow. — Purled. 

3c? Mow. — x k 2, m 1, k 2 t, k 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1. x finish 
with k 2. 

5th Mow. — x k 3, m 1, k 3 t, m 1, k 2. x finish with k 3. 

6th Mow. — x m 1, p 2 t, p 6. x repeat the last time, after 
p 6, m 1, p 2 t, one of these being an edge-stitch. 

1th Row. — X k 2, k 2 t, m 1, k I, m 1, k 2 t, k 1. X end 
with k 2. 

8th mid 10th Mows. — Purled. 

9th Mow. — X k 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 3, m 1, k 2 t. X end 
with k 1. 

11th Mow. — K 2 t. X m 1, k 5, m 1, k 3 t. X end with 
k 2 t, instead of three. 



64 HALF-DIAHOND-STTTCH PLAIT-STITCH KNITTING. 

12th Roic. — P 4, m 1, p 2 t. p 2. X repeat as often as 
may be. 

These twelve rows complete the pattern. 

Lozenge Knitting. — As large diamond, taking the rows 
in the following order : 1st, 12th, 1st again, 2c?, 3c?, 4th, 5th, 
6tf?, 1th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th. Another variety may be 
obtained by repeating 1st and 12th rows as above, but not 
repeating 6th and 1th. The design now will be oblongs in 
one line, and diamonds in the other. 

Hate-diaacond-stitch — Divisible by 6, exclusive of edges. 

1st Row. — X ni 1, k 4, k 2 t. X. 

2d and every other alternate How. — Purled. 

3d Row. — Xk 1, m 1, k 3, k 3 t, X. 

5th Bow. — K 2, m 1, k 2, k 2 t. X. 

1th Roto. — X k 3, m 1, k 1, k 2 t, X. 

9th Eoic.—K 4, m 1, k 2 t, X. 

11th Row. — X K 4, m 1, k 2 t, X. Observe that the 
nearest of the two knitted together is a made stitch. 

13th Row. — x k 2 t (the first time with one from the bor- 
der), k 3, m 1, k 1. X. 

15th Row. — X k 2 t (first time as in 13th), k 2, m 1, k 2.x. 

11/h Rote. — X k 2 t (first time as before), k 1, m 1, k 3.X. 

19th Roto. — X k 2 t (first time as before), m 1, k 4.X. 

The 20th Roic, which, like all the alternate rows, is purled, 
completes this pattern. 

Plait-stitcii Knitting. — This is a very pretty, but some- 
what tedious stitch, until dexterity has been acquired by 
practice. It is especially suitable for wool-work. Two 
needles, at least double the sifce of those which would be 
usually considered appropriate for the material, and one 
finer and very short one, pointed at each end. Cast on 
:i number divisible by 4, exclusive of the rduv stitches, of 
which there should be three, at least, at each edge. 

1st Row. — Slip off the two first pattern stitches, on the 



MYRTLE LEAF AND CABLE PATTERN". 65 

short needle, which hold with your other left-hand one, but 
between your person and your work. Knit the next two, 
then these* two, in their proper order. Do every foul 
stitches like these. 

2d Bow. — Purled. Purl the two first pattern stitches. 
Slip off the next two, and hold the extra needle as before, 
but behind the work. Purl two, then the slipped two. Re« 
peat these four ; and purl the last two plain. 

Myrtle Leaf Pattern may be done with two or four 
needles. Divisible by 13. 

1st Boio. — P 2, m 1, k 4, k 3 t, k 4, m 1. x repeat. 

2d, and all alternate rows, ifioith two needles. — P 11, k 2 
If with four, p 2, k 11. 

3c? Bow.— P 2, k 1, m 1, k 3, k 3 t, k 3, m 1, k 1. 

5th Bow. — P 2, k 2, m 1, k 2, k 3 t, k 2, m 1, k 2. 

1th Bow.—P 2, k 3, m 1, k 1, k 3 t, k 1, m 1, k 3. 

9th Bote. — P 2, k 4, m 1, k 3 t, m 1, k 4. 

The ten rows or rounds complete one pattern. 

Cable Pattern. — This presents the twisted appearance 
of a cable. 4, 6, 8 or 10 stitches may form the cable, with 
4 or 6 purl stitches between, and as many at each edge. 6 
make a good cable, and say 4 between, you will require your 
stitches divisible by 10, and 4 over. 

1st Bow. — x p 4, k 6, x . 

2d, and all alternate rows. — x k 4, p 6. x . 

3d Bow. — Like first. 

5th Boio (with another needle). — xp4, slip 3 on the third 
needle, k the next 3, now knit in the same order in which they 
ought originally to have come, the three on the extra nee- 
dle. x . 

1th Bow. — Like first. . 

These eight rows complete a pattern. If the cable has 
8 stitches, two more plain rows will be needed ; and a like 
increase for a still larger cable. If done with four needles, 



thr ^:rr^.:e r;— £ ~ist ':; Ize kke tie tk 
C:z::^r Paxxbbi ~: order). — Divisible h 



2d Bom.— Knitted. 

3d Bow. — SI 1, k 1, pass dip over, x k 6, m 6 (see diree- 

tion s tor making many stitches), k 6, k 3 1. X last time, k 2 t. 

4th Bovr. — P 2 t, X p 16, p 3 t, reversed. X. End T*"ith 

"" E: : — SI 1. k 1. .5- tke =kk-5tit:k : _ er. > k 4. z:~ 
k the six zi: :e Jtit :kes. n "_.: ._ z. . ': :-:::; e~er_- me. s: m- 
:-re.eim _• tkem tt 1_ : k 4. k ; : Lzst tine, k 1 :. 

6iA Bate. — P Si xp 13. p 3 t. reversed, last time kit 

Bt — 9 1. k 1, pass slip over. X k 16, k 3 t, X last 

8th Bote. — P 2 t. X p 14- p 3 t reverse. X last time 2 only. 
9th Bote. — SI 1, k 1, pass slip over, X k 12, k 3 t X last 

S. ■ — ? ::'.t 1. 



. I i — Divisible by 14. with 3 over, which 
allows the first three stitches of the pattern to be repeated 
at the end of the row. 

1st Bote. — X p 1, k 1, p 1, * k 1, m 1 * 10 times, k 1, x. 
repeat to the end of the row. 

— kl, pi, kl ?P 21 X. 

•— p 1. k 1. p . :pl, kl, paw 

flfip over, k 4 

k 1, p 1, k 1, p 3, p 2 t reverse, p 9, p _ 
J. X. 

• — X p 1, k 1, p 1, k 2, k 2 - . t ttip, k 

- 



SCALLOP SHELL PATTERN. 67 

6th Bow. — X k 1, p 1, k 1, p 1, p 2 t rev. p 9, p 2 t, 
pi, X. 

1th Bow. — X p 1, k 1, p 1, k 2 t, k 9, k 2 t, slip. X. 

8th Bow.—K 1, p 1, k 1, p 9. 

To make this pattern more open, the thread may be put 
twice round the needle, as if to make two stitches, the loop 
being knitted as one only. 

Scaxlop Shell Pattern {border). — Divisible by 20, and 
edge, which purl. 

1st Bow. — Purled. 

2d Row. — Purled. 

3d Bow. — X m 1,-* tw 1, p 1, * 9 times, tw2t. X. 

Uh Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 8 times ; twp 1, m 
1, twp 1 X. 

5th Bow. — X tw 1, k 1, m 1. * tw 1, p 1, * 8 times, 
tw 2 t. X . 

Gth Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 7 times, twp 1. m 
1, p 2 t, m 1, twp 1. X 

1th Bow. — X tw 1, k 3, m 1, * tw 1, p 1, * 1 times. 
tw 2 t. X . 

8th Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 6 times; twp 1, m 
1, p 2 t, m 1, p 2 t, m 1, twp 1. X . 

9th Bow. — X tw 1, k 5, m 1, * tw 1, p 1, * 6 times ; tw 2 
t, X. 

10th Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 5 times ; twp 1, m 
1, p 2 t, m 1, p 2 t, m 1, p 2 t, m 1, twp 1 X 

11th Bow. — X tw 1, k 7, m 1 * tw 1, p 1, * 5 times. 

12th Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 4 times; twp 1, 
-r- m 1, p 2 t, -i- 4 times ; m 1, twp 1. X • 

13th Boio. — X tw 1, k 9, m 1 * tw 1, p 1, X 4 times; tw 
2 t. X. 

14uA Bow. — X p 2 t rev. * twp 1, k 1, * 3 times ; twp 1, 
-r m 1, p 2 t, H- 5 times; m 1, twp 1 X. 

Ihth Bow. — X tw 1, k IT, m 1, tw 1, p 1, tw 1, p 1, tw 1, 
p 1, tw 2 t, X. 



68 FRILL KOTTTTNG. 

16th Bow. — X p 2 t rev. twp 1, k 1, twp 1, k 1, twp 1, * 
m 1, p 2 t, * 6 times; m 1, twp 1. X. 

11th Boio. — X tw 1, k 13, m 1, tw 1, p 1, tw 1, p 1, 
tw 2 t, 'X . 

18ZA Bow. — X p 2 t rev, twp 1, k 1, twp 1, * m 1, p 2 t, * 
7 times; m 1, tw 1. 

IQth Boio. — X tw 1, k 17, m 1, tw 1, p 1, tw 2 t, X. 

20th Boio. — X p 2 t, rev. twp 1, m 1, * p 2 t, m 1, * 8 
times twp 1. X 

21st Bow. — X tw 1, k 17, m 1, tw 2 t. X. 

22d Bow.— Purl 20. 

Ridge Pattern. — Knit one row ; purl one ; knit one. 

4th Bow. — p 2. X m 2, p 2 t. X to tlie end. 

5th Bow. — Knitted, treating ever two made stitches in last 
row as one. 

6th Bow. — Purled. 

1th Bow. — Knit this row, taking up, at every stitch, one 
of those of the first row. 

This may be made wider by repeating the 4th and 5th rows. 
This stitch is principally used either hi one of two colors, 
the rest of the work being done in the other, or in thick 
wool, as zephyr, when the rest of the fabric is in Shetland. 
In either case it is easy to take up the loops of the first row, 
a few at a time, if there be many ; or at all events, if not too 
numerous, using a finer needle, and holding the two in the 
left hand, to knit from. 

Frill Knitting. — In this there are, on one side, loops of 
wool, about an inch wide, ami numerous enough to make a 
full frill, :is if of quilled net. Rather lino Bteel needles 
should be employed, even if all 'the rest of the article bo 
done wit 1 1 coarse ones. Cast on any number of stitches, and 
knit <>nc plain row. 

I.s7 Vattrrn How. Insert tin' point of the needle in the 

stitch to be knitted, then put tin- wool three, four, or five 
tunes round it, and the first and second fingers of the left 



HONEYCOMB KNITTING. G9 

hand, ending with putting it again round the needle Knit 
this as an ordinary stitch. Do each in the row so. 

2d. — Twist-knit every stitch, treating each collection of 
loops as one stitch. Repeat these two rows. It is a nice 
trimming for the front of children's hoods, setting in a full 
frill round the face ; for brioche mat borders and other pur- 
poses. 

Chinchilla Fur Trimming. — Have four good shades of 
8 thread fleecy grey wool, with black. They should be 
very distinct — the darkest nearly black; the lightest very 
light. Also some black or grey 4 thread fleecy. Knit this, 
in common garter-stitch, of any width you may want the fur. 
Fourteen stitches is a good width. Do the required length. 
Now work the coarse wool in cross-stitch, on every ridge of 
the knitting, having the wool double in a coarse rug needle, 
and at every stitch making a loop over a netting mesh, one 
inch, or rather more, wide. Do three rows black; then 
three of each grey, from darkest to lightest of which six; 
then hi succession back again to black. Afterwards cut all 
the loops, and comb it out. Sew it on as a fur trimming to 
basques, polkas, etc. It must always be taken off to be 
washed. 

Honeycomb Knitting. — "White wool and one color. Any 
number of stitches divisible by five, with four needles, 
or with two extra stitches and two needles. With four 
needles — cast on the stitches with the white wool, close into 
a round ; purl two rounds. Join on the colored, x slip the 
two first stitches, as if you were going to purl them, then 
with the colored wool knit 3 ; repeat these five all round for 
four rounds ; so that, in fact, the same two out of every five 
are never knitted at all. Then with the white wool x purl 
2, knit 3 x one round, and purl every stitch for two rounds. 
These seven rounds make the pattern. 

In working with two needles, of course in every alternate 



10 TO KNIT AN IMITATION OF MOSS. 

round, the knitted stitches of the previous one must be 
purled, and vice versd. 

Diamond Honeycomb. — An even number of stitches re- 
quired. 

1st How. — Thread in front, slip one as for purling, k 1, 
re23eat to the end. . 

2c?. — x k 2, slip one, which is always the one made by the 
thread passing over the needle, x . 

3d. — x k 2 t, thread in front, slip one as for purling x 
repeat to the end, when thread in front k 1. 

4th. — K 1, slip 1. x k 2, slip one, as in second, to the end, 
when there will be an odd one to knit. 

5 th. — x thread in front, slip one as for purling, k 2 t x . 
Repeat these four rows, second to fifth, as often as wanted. 

Observe, in casting off to knit together, the long stitch 
and the short one it covers as one. 

Also, in reckoning the rows done of this work, count them 
on the wrong side. Every other one, in fact, being no row 
at all. 

To knit an Imitation of Moss. — Procure good shades 
of emerald and olive green, and rich brown. There should 
be four or five shades of each. "With steel needles, which 
are very fine in proportion to the wool, cast on with the 
darkest shade of any color fourteen stitches. Knit an inch 
or so in common garter-stitch ; join on the next consecutive 
shade Avith a weaver's knot ; do the same ; repeat with every 
shade of this color to the lightest, then back to the darkest. 
Continue till you have done as much as you need. Use every 
color in the same way. Or, you may do all on one pieoe, 
knitting the various colors alternately; but I do not like this 
si) well. Now wet your work thoroughly with clean wain-, 
and hold it as near as possible to a brisk lire to dry, without 
Bcorching. If the oven be not very hot, it may be put in 
there. When dry and crisp, shave off one edge — that is, 



KNOTTING. 71 

cut it without going deeper than you can help. Unravel all 
the stitches but two, which are sufficient to make one edge 
perfectly solid. If you want narrow moss, six or eight, 
instead of fourteen stitches, will do. (For its uses, see 
Mats.) 



KNOTTING. 

This sort of work seems to have fallen, very undeservedly, 
into disuse. Still, many of my readers may be glad to know 
how it is executed, especially as it is both pretty and easy. 
It used to be employed for the coverings of reticules, sofa 
cushions, fishing bags and purses ; and probably was also put 
to many other uses. The material is fine whip-cord, string, 
or crochet cord. For purses, coarse crochet silk may be 
used. 

Cut lengths of cord at least six times as long as the article 
you want to make. Take another piece, and at one end of 
it tie one of the long pieces exactly in the middle. Fasten 
another long piece, in like manner, about the sixth of an 
inch off, and continue so till you have tied in a line a sufficient 
length for what you want. If it is to be a round, tie the 
ends of the foundation string close together, so that the 
threads shall be all at equal distances. A round must be 
worked over a cushion, so' that it can be shifted. A flat piece 
must be pinned firmly on a pillow. Now take four threads. 
Hold one from each pair, as centre threads, and make of the 
left hand one a loop, on the right side of them. Take the 
right hand thread — pass it from underneath through this 
loop, over the centre threads, under both parts of the left- 
hand thread, again over the centre, and down, through the 
loop again. Holding the centre ones steadily, draw up the 
others. Repeat with right-hand thread ; continue alternately 



72 y CANVAS LACE-W0KK. 

until say six stitches are done. Do every four threads so. 
Then reverse the threads, the right hand of one set, and left 
of the next, being the centres of the next line of knots. Work 
longer or shorter pieces to fancy. All knotted work must 
be lined. 



LACE-WORK. 

This is darning in various patterns, on bobbinets ; and 
from the very moderate price, and good quality of the manu- 
factured article, that made by hand is now comparatively 
but little used. The design was generally drawn on paper, 
and tacked under the net. Then all the outlines were traced 
(by running in and out), with glazed cotton, an article now 
nearly obsolete. The leaves and flowers were then filled in, 
the heavy parts with close darning, the ligher in various 
fancy stitches, all darned in different ways, with lace-cotton, 
which was extremely fine. 

Borders were usually done in such patterns as could be 
counted by threads. Many were very pretty ; and they 
had the merit of washing and wearing well. A purling was 
always sewed on the edge. 

Those who are disposed to try this sort of work, should 
select a net with no dress in it, and allow amply for the 
inevitable shrinking. Evans' Moravian, No. TO, would be 
suitable for heavy parts, and their 150 Boars' Head for the 
darned fancy stitches.- 

Canvas Lack-work, is an imitation, on oanvas, of black 
lace, for which any square orochet pattern will answer. The 
close stitches are done in black 4 thread Berlin; the open 
squares in fine black silk : all in cross-stitch. It is pretty for 

h c purposes. Bags worked in colors have, not unfre* 

quently, a border in this work. It was very popular a few 
years ago, bu1 isnol verj much used now. 



BR0DER1E ANGLAISE. 73 

MUSLIN-WORK. 

MtISLIN-Wv.RK, OR EMBROIDERY ON MuSLIN. — Tills IS 

especially of two kinds, exclusive of Swiss lace, or applique 
of muslin or tulle. They are English embroidery, mote 
generally known, even among us, by its French naUH', 
JBroderie Anglaise, and French embroidery. 

Beoderie Anglaise is by far the simplest, although it 
requires, like everything else which is worth doing at all, 
care and skill to give it due effect. It is that sort of work 
in which the design is made in holes of various forms ; and 
has had, during the last few years, a marvellous success. 
Everybody has worked Broderie Anglaise, for collars, sleeves, 
skirts, and under-linen; and some has been done in a stylo 
which compelled one to wish that the holes had been merely 
cut out of the muslin and left so ; the addition of cotton, and 
the time requisite to sew it over, merely serving to make it 
more conspicuously ugly. When well done, it is, however, 
very handsome and effective ; and compared with the elabo- 
rate work of France, is quickly done. In all this woik, the 
pattern is marked on the muslin or other material ; those 
who have not facilities for purchasing it ready done, may 
copy any design they see in the magazines or elsewhere, by 
means of pounced patterns. (See Pounced patterns.) But 
as those who make it their business to transfer them, do so 
with much more accuracy than amateurs, the prepared woik 
procurable in shops is by far the most convenient. The mus- 
lin must then be tacked on tolle cirec, and all the outlines 
traced. This is done with cotton two or three numbers 
coarser than that employed for sewing. Any part that is 
afterwards to be covered with a depth of work, such as a 
scallop, has a line of thread run along each outline, and the 
space filled in with other tracing threads, taken elose 
to each other, and sometimes even over each other, so as 

4 



74 GRADUATED BUTTONHOLE-STITCH. 

considerably to raise the surface. The stitches, in tracing, 
must always he done in the direction of the length of the 
leaf, scallop, or other object. "When leaves are worked in 
satin-stitch, and have to be veined, the space for the veinings 
must be carefully left in tracing. This portion of the work 
finished, you cut out, always within the tracing thread, such 
parts as require it, and then work over the edges, either by 
sewing over or overcasting. In the former, you sew the edges 
in a succession of close stitches, lying evenly One by another ; 
and it greatly improves the appearance of the work, and 
adds to its durability, if you hold in a thread of hard twisted 
(Boar's Head) cotton, and work over it. You do not fasten 
off at every hole or flower, but pass the thread at the back 
of the work, from one part to the one nearest. The Boar's" 
Head thread must be cut off. Round holes, when not very 
large, are pierced with a stiletto. If overcasting is done, 
the stitches should be fine, even, and quite close. 




Graduated Buttonhole-stitch, ok Rose Scalloping, is 
much raised, and worked over in overcast. The great art is 
to make the edges of the stitches very even, presenting 
clear, regular, scallops. A bad worker makes them misera- 
bly jagged, so that it is difficult to cut the muslin away after- 
wards. This is distinguished from ordinary scallops by 
being each large one composed of a succession of smaller ; 
whereas, in a common scallop, the outer edge is one clear 
curve. The French use the term, point de rose, for all 
graduated buttonhole-stitoh, whether used for an edge 
or not. 



^^^r^ 




SCALLOPS — EYELET-HOLE — SPOTS. 75 

Scallops, may be sharp or pointed. In either case, they 
are threaded, raised, and worked over like the rose scallops, 
observe, that the greater the width of any scallop, in its 
widest part, the more it should be raised. 

Eyelet-hole, is any small round hole, whether sewed or 
buttonholed. 

Chinese Eyelet-holes are used to 

represent bunches of grapes, and for 

other ornaments. In the patterns they 

are marked by a large circle, and a 

very small one within^ but not in the 

centre of it. They are always raised, 

and worked in overcast, the needle 

being put in the small hole at every 

stitch. To work them evenly, so that 

the outer circle may be well filled, and yet the threads not 

lie too close in the inner, requires much skill, since there are, 

of course, the same number of stitches in each part. 

Spots. — If very small, they are made by taking two or 
three stitches in precisely the same place, so that one falls 
over another. If large, you trace and raise them, and work 
in satin-stitch. 

During the last year or so, a new style of embroidery, 
used only for morning, or neglige toilette, has come up ; and 
from the rapidity of its execution it is termed Bkoderie a la 
Minute, and a la Poste. In the former, the design is 
entirely a succession of dots, as in the engraving; in the 
latter, the pattern varies, and may even be very elaborate ; 
but the stitch is the same for both, only that a spot does not 
require so many windings of the thread round the needle as 
a straight line would do. I append a diagram of the needle 
with the thread on it, and also various leaves, flowers, and 
other forms usually found in Broderie d la Minute and d la 
Poste. 



76 



BRODEKIE A LA MESTUTE AND A LA POSTE. 




° a ' 



O.OOOOQ,. 



°c 0oC o° § % 
°°0ooooo° 



ft* 5 



£ 



__ .cP°o o 5 \ 









6<*y. o00oo 



C 



I should observe that collars and cuffs d la Minute (they 
are always made to match), are done in double muslin, the 




marked piece and a plain. The edges are run together at 
the outline ; Ollt even, turned inside out, and stitched on the 
inside line. It is tlun ready for mounting on toils cirSe 



FRENCH EMBROIDERY. 77 

Collars and cuffs d la poste have usually a small scalloped 
edge. Evans's royal perfectionne embroidery cotton, No. 8, 
is the proper material for this work, on stout but fine jaconet. 



^P 




French Embroidery includes all the delicate and most 
expensive kinds, worked in satin-sitch, with overcast and 
the various open and fancy stitches. The tracing is done as 
in Broderie Anglaise, but more closely, in proportion to the 
delicacy of the design. Satin-stitch is done by a succession 
of stitches, always across the leaf or other part, lying close 
to, but not over one another, with even edges, so that no 
one stitch is conspicuous. The delicacy of the material 
regulates the size of the cotton employed ; but the perfec- 
tionne embroidery cotton before mentioned, from 30 to 100, 
will be found suitable. Occasionally Moravian is used. This 
is the mode of working on merino or cloth, with silks. 

Veining, is simply tracing, and then sewing over, the veins 
of the leaves. It is done after the satin-stitch. 

Sometimes one half of a leaf is in satin-stitch the other 
covered with small dots. These are made either by sewing 
over two or three stitches in the same place, or by minute 
French knots, for which see_ Embroidery. 

There exists a vast variety of fancy-stitches, for filling in 



78 



THE WHEEL. 



the open parts of French embroidery. Many of the point- 
stitches, especially the wheels, spots, and cross-bars of vari- 
ous sorts, may be employed with great advantage. I will 
also describe some others. 

The Wheel. — In the space to be filled work a fine of 
Long Brussels edge, and then strengthen it by twisting 
round, a stitch under the outer line of every stitch. Within 
this you may work a rosette, or an English lace spot, or a 
set of radiating bars, or other stitches of which I append 
engravings. 




No.l. 



No. s. 



No. 1 . — , r n this a line of long Brussels (see Point stitches) 
is worked all round ; then a rosette, or four cross-bars ; 
after which take a stitch on the edge of every Brussels stitch, 
all round. The centre of the wheel ought to be solid. 

No. 2 is an English lace spot, worked on seven cross-bars. 

No. 3. — This pretty pattern is formed entirely of Long 
Brussels st.'tches, and worked from the outer to the inner 
part of the circle. Do the outer round at even distances, 
then take a stitch under the edge of each. Pass on to the 
next innermost circle; do three Long Brussels; miss the 
space of four, all round. Work on the edge like the last ; 
in the next circle, do four stitches in each long space, and 
again strengthen the edge by working on it; fill the next 
round with Lou;:; Brussels stitches, at equal close distances, 
work round ; then a round of plain Brussels. 



THE WHEEL. 



70 



No. 4. — The principle of working this is the same as the 
last, hut the arrangement of the stitches is different, and an 
English spot is worked in the centre. Refer to the engra- 
ving in working it. 




No. 4. 



No. 5. 



No. 6. 



No. 5. — Do three Long Brussels, and miss a space equal 
to that in the engraving, before you do the next three. 
When this round is done, pass the needle under, as before, to 
make a firm edge. Then a round of Brussels, almost close, 
working this edge also. Work round to the middle of one 
of the spaces ; take a long stitch to the centre of the next 
space, twist back m it three times, and take another long 
stitch, and so on, all round. Work on the edge, as in the 
rest, and at every bar make a small English spot. 

No. 6. — Do a close round of Long Brussels, and work the 
edge ; then take a long stitch across one-sixth of the space ; 
X twist closely back on- half of it, and do four more long 
close twisted stitches in the same place ; take another, miss- 
ing a sixth ; repeat from the cross. Do a row of Brussels 
on it ; work the edge, then take bars across, as in the engra- 
ving, and darn backwards and forwards across two, for the 
spot. 

No. 7. — Do the usual first round ; then a long stitch, 
across one-seventh of the round ; another tight stitch in the 
same. Repeat so that there Mall be seven of these stitches. 
Now do three lon«r twisted stitches for a bar on each of the 



80 



THE WHEEL. 



tight stitches, and between every two sets, a stitch on the 
loop, with a spot on it. Twist back on all these, and finish 
with an inner line of Brussels. 




No. 7. 



No. 8. 



No. 9. 



No. 8. — One plain round ; then on one-sixth, backwards 
and forwards, for the point ; take stitches on the edge, tc 
bring the needle to the next sixth, and so on, all round ; fin- 
ish with a rosette from bars connecting all the points. 

No. 9. — The usual plain round, edged; then eight long and 
closely-twisted stitches, within which another close round is 
worked. 




No. 10. 



No. 11. 



Eta 19. 



No. 10. — The first round as before. Take throe bars 
across, at regular distanoes, as if for a rosette, instead of 
which, darn, baokwards and forward^ (like English bars) be- 
tween rxvvy pair. 

No. I 1. — The first round here must he doubly twist ed, :iud 
edged ; tho next, once twisted and edged; then four twisted 



TTTTC WHEEL. 



81 



bars, as in the engraving, to form a cross, and a spot in the 
centre. 

No. 12. — "Worked like No. 6, but with two instead of five 
twisted bars in each stitch, and an ordinary English spot in 
the centre. 




No. 18. 



No. 14. 



No. 15. 



No. 13. — Like No. 10; but four twisted bars are taken 
across, in pairs, like those of Cordovan Lace ; and you darn 
in English bars between them, leaving the centre, where 
they all cross, open. 

No. 14. — Like No. 12, with three long twisted bars in one 
stitch, and then a space. In working the next round, of 
Long Brussels, keep these three together, by not taking any 
stitch between them. Do an English spot in the middle. 

No. 15. — Not very dissimilar to the last, but the long 
twisted bars are in six pairs, with the space of one stitch be- 
tween every pair ; and a Cordovan spot worked to connect 
them. 




No. 16. 



No. 18. 



82 



THE WHEEL. 



No 16. — Like No. 14, with four English spots in the 
centre. 

No. 17. — The six spots in the centre of this are Mechlin 
wheels, rounds of thread covered with buttonhole-stitch, and 
worked so as to touch and support each other. 

No. 18. — The first round of Brussels here has a double 
twist, and is worked over. The next is simply Long Brus- 
sels, worked over ; then twisted bars are taken across, and a 
square spot darned. 





No. 19. 



No. 20. 



No. 19.- -This is a very pretty stitch. In the first round 
the stitches of Long Brussels are somewhat apart, and edged. 
Then a stitch is taken, missing one quarter of the stitches. 
Then another, and another, and another. Twist a little way 
up one, and then work on it in Brussels Lace, and backwards 
and forwards in the same to make the square. 

No. 20. — For the inner white circle here, you must take 
down an outline thread ; work it closely in buttonhole-stitch, 
and do a line of Brussels at each edge of it. Edge them. From 
the outer line, take the threads for the foundation of each 
spot, and carry a line round, working each, where the three 
cross. 

In all these wheels, the thread is twisted down one or 
more pars, to the outer circle again, from the centre, for 
fastening oflf. They must all ba done in Evans' Boar's Head 
( 'ol ton, No. 150. 



STIELL AND CKOSS-STTTCH. 



R3 




These stitches will be found very useful in repairing work 
that has been worn out, or been injured by the laundress. 

Shell-stitch, for oblong spaces. Make one row of Brus- 
sels edge of stitches at double the usual distance. Work 
backwards and forwards, doing nine stitches on each stitch 
in the first row ; then eight on nine, seven on eight, six on 
seven, and so on. This is pretty, also, for Point Lace. 

Ckoss-Stitch, suitable for large 
spaces. Draw three threads and 
leave three throughout the space 
in both directions. Hold your work 
on the wrong side, and with a very 
fine thread take a stitch under 
every three threads, between every 
set of threes in the opposite direc- 
tion. Do this both ways until they 
are formed into lines of bars. (See Point lace.) In darning, 
you work always from the centre open square, outwards; 
two of the spots, therefore, in every cross are darned up and 
down, and the other two across. 

Another pretty stitch, for which no name is 
found, is made by drawing four and leaving 
four threads, in each direction, like the last. 
Take a stitch on one bar, and then across the 
space, and do half the opposite bar. Carry 
the thread round the corner, do half that bar, 
and carry the thread to the opposite side ; cross the one al- 
ready there. "Work a stitch round that bar, and then proceed 
to fill in another square. Every alternate one is done thus. 
Fill a space with Venetian bars, make a 
cross in each square, take two or three button- 
hole stitches to connect them firmly in the 
centre, and work a Venetian dot between 
every pair of threads. 
I have given above a collection of twenty 



siss*!:®--" ■ 




84 "NTTITN'It THE STITCH. 

varieties of wheels, which my readers will find it perfectly 
easy to do, after studying the directions for Point Lace and 
those for Embroidery. The small circles, with thick white 
lines, always represent buttonhole-stitch. Evans' Boar's 
Head, 100, 120, or 150, must be used for them. 



NETTING. 

The implements used are a netting-needle, which is a bat 
of steel or ivory, open at both ends, - and with a small round 
hole in which to fasten the end of thread ; a plain bar, flat or 
round, which is called a mesh • with cotton, silk, or other 
material. A stirrup is useful for holding the work. It is a 
strip of embroidered canvas, an inch wide and five or six 
long, fined with ribbon, of which about a yard and a quarter 
is left, forming a long loop, from one end of the canvas to 
the other. This is worn on the foot, the foundation of the 
netting being attached to the ribbon, which ought to be long 
enough to come within a pleasant range of sight. But, 
though not so neat and pretty, a fine cord passed round the 
foot answers all the purpose ; and still better is a small 
cushion screwed firmly to the edge of the table. 

The Stitch. — Tie the end of your thread in a knot to the 
stirrup, or to a thread fastened to it, if it be a ribbon. Take 
the mesh in your left hand, and hold it between the finger 
and thumb; parallel with the former, and close under the 
knot. The hand is so placed that the other fingers turn in- 
wards, towards you. Pass the thread over the fore, middle 
and third fingers, round the last, and again over the others, 

and mi'ler the mesh. Catch it with the thumb ; now carry 
it loosely under all the fingers, and insert the needle under 
the upper part of the former loop, over the second part ofit, 
•Mid in the Btltch to be worked, or under the foundation loop 




SQUARE AND HONEYCOMB NETTING. 85 

Dmv out the needle towards you, first dropping off the first 
loop, and then gradually tightening the other, retaining it, 
however, on the little finger as long as possible, to prevent it 
from knotting. When as many stitches are done as needful, 
work backwards on them, for a flat piece, but for a round, 
you must close it by taking the first stitch of last row as the 
first of this ; after which work round and round. The foun- 
dation thread may finally be drawn out. Common netting 
stitch forms a diamond. Take care that 
every stitch be drawn np evenly, quite close 
to the mesh, as long and irregular stitches 
spoil the beauty of the work. You always 
increase in netting by doing two or more 
stitches in one hole. 

Square Netting is the simple stitch done so as to have 
the shape of a square instead of a diamond. Begin on one 
stitch ; and, working backwards and forwards, always do two 
in the last stitch of every row, until you have one hole less, 
counting from the point up one side, than the design requires. 
This forms a half square, when needed. Do one row without 
increase, and then net two together at the end of every row, 
till the two last are taken as one. This work always requires 
to be damped, slightly stiffened, and pinned out straight to 
dry, to give it its proper shape. 

An Oblong Piece of Square Netting. — Do the half 
square and plain row as in the last. Then decrease at the 
end of every alternate row only ; increasing one at the end 
of every intermediate one. "When you have one hole less 
than you want, on the long side, do another plain row, and 
decrease as in square netting. Must be washed like the last. 
Honey-Comb Netting. — Begin with an 
even number of stitches. 

1st Hew. — Miss the first, net the next. 
Draw the first through it, and net. Re- 
•C _ ^T^1IS > peat to the end. 




86 



GRECIAN NETTING LONG-TWIST-STITCH. 




Id and 4th Hows. — Plain rows. 

3d Mow. — Net the first. Then work like the first row tc 
the end, when you will have an odd stitch, which net. 

Repeat these four rows. Some people use, for the plain 
row, a mesh five sizes larger than the other. It makes a 
more open stitch. 

Round Netting. — Like plain netting, 
but that after passing the needle through 
the loop of thread you draw it out, and by 
another movement, insert it downwards, 
and towards you, in the stitch to be 
worked. Draw it up like an ordinary stitch. It contracts 
very much, for which allowance of nearly a fourth must 
be made, if you desire to work in round netting any article 
for which the directions are in common netting. 

Grecian Netting. — Take two meshes, 
one being seven sizes larger than the 
other. Do a plain row with the large 
mesh. Now take the small, and begin the 
stitch as usual, but when putting the nee- 
dle in the loop as usual, take up, also, the 
second, which draw through the first. Through this again 
draw the first and finish it. 

The 2d Hoic forms a very small loop, at the side, which 
net as usual. Repeat to the end. 
Sd How. — Plain, with large mesh. 

4th Roto. — Small mesh. Do one plain stitch ; then the 
pattern, like the second row, and end with a plain stitch. 





LoNa-TWisr-STiTCH.--Do alternately three rows of round 



FEENCTT-GUOUND AND SPOTTED NETTING. 



R7 




netting, with a small mesh, and a plain row, with a mesh 
doable the size. 

French-ground Netting. — Have an even 
number of stitches. 

1st Mow. — One stitch of plain netting ; 
one with the thread twice round the nee- 
dle (usually called a double-stitch, and 
always treated as one in the following row). 
Repeat these two. 

2d How. — Plain netting, one stitch being long, and the 
next short. 

3c? How. — Make a double-stitch and draw the needle 
entirely from under the mesh ; insert it in the right-hand 
hole of the last row hut one, which is part of the line of holes 
before those last made. Take up the first stitch of the last 
row, and draw it through that of the lower row ; net it. 
The second loop of the last row will also be drawn partly 
through. Net this, which is a very small stitch, in the ordi- 
nary way. Repeat these two stitches throughout. The 
next row is like the second ; the fifth like the third, except 
that a plain stitch is done at the beginning and end of the 
row. 

1th Row. — Short stitches are not netted in the following 
row. 

Spotted Netting. — Do a stitch on your 
foundation with the thread twice round 
the mesh ; then two stitches with it only 
once round the mesh. Repeat these 
three stitches in working backwards and 
forwards. After the foundation row, all 
three stitches must be worked on one loop. This is one 
of the designs which makes so pretty a tidy, without the 
trouble of darning a pattern on it. 




88 



DIAMOND AND LARGE DIAMOND WETTING. 




Diamond Netting. — 1st Roto. — 1 plain 
stitch, 1 double one (with the thread twice 
round the mesh), alternately. 

2d Roto. — In the preceding row, the 
stitches are alternately short and long ; this 
row is in plain netting, but every alternate 
loop is worked not close to the mesh, but 
so as to make the ends even. 

3d Row. — 1 double-stitch, 1 plain-stitch, alternately. 

4th Roto. — 1 long-stitch, 1 plain one, alternately. 

Large Diamond Netting. — The number 
of stitches required for this pattern is 6, 
and one over. 

1st Roto. — 1 double, 5 plain,, repeat to 
the end, which is a double-stitch. 

2d Row. — 1 plain netting, 1 long, draw 
out the mesh ; 4 more plain netting, draw 
out the mesh. 
3c? Roto. — 1 plain, 1 long-stitch double, .3 plain double, 
1 plain. 
\th Row. — 2 plain, 1 long double, 2 plain double, 1 plain. 
bth Row. — 2 plain, 1 long double, 1 plain double, 2 plain. 
Gth Roto. — 3 plain, 1 long, 2 plain. 
ItJt Row. — 3 plain, 1 double, 2 plain. 
8/7i Rou\ — 3 plain double, 1 plain, 1 long double, 1 plain. 
Dfh Row. — 2 plain double, 2 plain, 1 long double, 1 plain. 
\0th Row. — 2 plain double, 3 plain, 1 long double. 
1 1 Ih Row. — 1 plain double, 4 plain, 1 long double. 
12th Row. — 1 long, 5 plain. 

A counterpane done in Evans' Boar's Head Cotton, 
No. 2, iii this pattern, and brimmed simply with a fringe, 
w ■■ mlil make an elegant finish to a bed, over a bright colored 
comfortable. 




SPOTTED DIAMOND AND LEAF-NETTING. 




Spotted Diamond Nettix"-;. — ■ 
This is worked with two meshes, 
one heing half the size of the 
other. The spot is made by- 
working a plain-stitch in the same 
loop as the last, with the small 
mesh. Four stitches are required 
for each pattern, and an extra 
one in the entire length. 

-1 double, 2 plain with spot, 1 plain. 

1 plain, 1 long double, 1 plain with spot, 1 plain 



-1 plain, 1 long double, 1 plain double, 1 



1st Mow. 
2d Mow.- 
double. 

3d Mow 
plain. 

4Jh Mow. — 1 plain, 1 plain with spot, 1 plain, 1 long. 
5th- JRow. — 1 plain with spot, 1 plain, 1 double, 1 plain 
with spot. 

6th Mow. — 1 plain with spot, 1 plain double, 1 plain, 1 long 
double. 

1th Mow. — 2 plain, 1 long, 1 plain double. 

8th Mow. — 1 plain, 1 plain with spot, 4. plain, 1 long. 

Leap Netting. — Each pattern requires 
five stitches, and four extra in the length ; 
two at each edge. 

1st Mow. — 3 plain, 5 plain all in one 
loop, 5 plain in next. 

2d Mow. — Take on your needle, at 
once, the 9 extra loops made, and work them as one ; 4 
plain. 

3d Mow. — Plain. 

±th Roto. — 2 plain, increase 4 in each of the next two 
loops, 1 plain. 
5th Mow. — 1 plain, 9 together as one, 3 plain. 
6th Row.— Plain. 




30 NETTING WITH BEADS DARNED NETTING. 

This description does not include the extra stitches at the 
ends, which are always in plain netting. 

Double-stitch. — Pass the thread twice round the mesh, 
instead of once, thus making a long-stitch. 

Long-stitch. — Used when some of the stitches in the pre- 
ceding row have been double-stitches. To work so that the 
loops of this row shall be even, the knot must not be drawn 
close to the mesh, in working on the single-stitches of the 
previous row. These stitches are termed long-stitches. 

Netting with Beads. — Instead of a netting needle, use 
an ordinary darner, of such a size that the beads can pass 
over it. Thread as many as you wish to put on one stitch, 
then net it as usual. Thread on more beads, and do the next. 

Darned Netting is simply a piece of square or common 
netting, with a pattern in it darned in knitting cotton. As 
a rule, whatever the No. of the Boar's Head Cotton, with 
which the ground is done, the same number, in Evans' Knit- 
ting Cotton, will be proper for darning. It is done by work- 
ing backwards and forwards until the hole is filled in, the 
cotton being always carried through as many holes as have to 
be filled up in one line. 

For square netting any square crochet pattern will do. 

Sometimes, instead of simply filling in the design, you 
work oni? in a variety of open stitches. The patterns 
chosen for '.his purpose are almost always geometrical, or 
such as can be done by counting threads. (See Plate I., 
Fig. 1.) 

Flanders Lace is a variety of darned netting, in which 
formerly ecclesiastical work was much done. The ground is 
always square, or oblong netting. The design is marked on 
point paper. It is then darned so that every square to be 
filled in has four of the darning threads crossing it, two in 

each direction. I believe that it is more cQffioull to acquire 

ekill in this than in any other sort of fancy-work, for you 






VANDYKED SQUARE NETTING. 



91 



must never cross two threads at a time, and the whole must 
appear woven, one thread ahove and the next below. I do 
not think it can be taught by writing, but I will try to ex- 
plain it, if possible. Begin at the right hand lower corner, 
with whatever row of squares there may be to be filled up. 
Run under one thread of the netting, over the next, along 
the length, and back again. Now, if there be another line, 
not projecting more to the right, do it the same ; but if it 
comes further out to the right, you must darn upwards. If 
this one square only goes beyond, you may turn the corner 
and darn in the direction of the first ; otherwise, continue 
darning upwards until you do come to a corner. The ac- 



aaaoBSBDonsjii 



etaiDcaasa; 
•■■••• 16! 



|itggg' ( 



No. 1. 





No. 8. 



companying engravings will, perhaps, aid in the description 
of this work. Crests and coats of arms look beautiful done 
in it ; and for churches, I have seen chalice cloths and other 
things, with figures of the apostles, exquisitely wrought. 

Embroidery on Netting is another sort of work, for 
which see JEmbr older y. 

I will conclude this article with a few useful edges in 
netting : 

1. Vandtked Square Netting. — Begin on one stitch, and 
increase at the end of every row, as for square netting, until 
there are say thirteen holes up the side. Then increase in 
every other row only, until there are eight holes up the new 
side, including the last of the thirteen, which may be classed 
with both. The next time you come to this point, leave the 
last seven stitches, and turn back. Continue increasing at 



92 



SHELL EDGING — ANOTHER SHELL 



the end of every alternate row, and making points like tun 
first. When you wish to close it, net two together several 
times, when you would have done two in one. These Van- 
dykes may afterwards be darned in a pattern. 

2. Another Pointed Edge, which may be worked as a 
border to curtains, or any other long article. Do eight 
stitches ; turn, and on them work seven. Turn and do six. 
Then, 5, 4, 3, 2. Cut off the thread closely, join it on to the 
next eight stitches, and do the same. Of course, any larger 
number may be taken, or any smaller, down to four; but 
you end always with two. 

3. Shell Edging. — A flat mesh, half inch wide, and a 
round one, No. 12. Do twelve stitches in one of the founda- 
tions with the flat mesh ; turn and do two in each one with 
the small ; then two rows of one in each one. The next shell 
should either be begun so that the edges will touch, or that 
one will lie half over the former. The corner shells will want 
eighteen stitches as a first row. 




Avotiier Shell. — Do one row all round the article with 
the SSDle mesh With which it was worked. A second, and 



ANOTHER LACE AND EDGING. 93 

even a third row may be done in the same way. Now take 
a flat mesh, which will make stitches of double the size. Do 
twelve in one, miss three, twelve in next, and so on. Take 
a mesh half the size of the smallest and do a stitch on every 
stitch, and when you come to the long thread, passing across 
the three missed stitches, draw it through the middle one 
and do a stitch on it. In the last row, with the fine mesh, 
do a stitch on every stitch. Three meshes required. 

5. A small neat shell edging for mitts and other articles, 
may be done exactly like the last, but with eight long stitches 
in one only. 

6. Another Lace. — A fine mesh, say No. 14, and a flat 
one half an inch wide. With double silk and the flat mesh, 
do three stitches in one and miss the next. With the fine, 
do a stitch on the first double stitch, but the other two 
double loops treat as four stitches. In the next row do a 
stitch on every stitch ; but in the next, miss the one over the 
double, so that you do four over five ; in the next, three on 
four ; in the next, two on three, there being, of course, a long 
thread between. Conclude by taking some of the silk four 
times doubled and working one stitch between every two of 
last row, with a somewhat coarser mesh. 

7. Another Edging. — One broad mesh and a round one, 
half the size required. Do two or three rows plain, with the 
fine mesh. Then take the flat one ; do a plain row. Then 
the fine one. Draw the second through the first, and then 
the first through it, netting it in just the same direction as if 
it had been worked plainly. Then net the second. Repeat 
these two throughout the round or row, and add one or two 
plain rows. 

Observe, that in doing any one of these edgings, if you we 
working round anything, as an antimacassar, you must in- 
crease sufficiently at each corner in the first row for the outer 
edge to lie flat, it being frequently impossible to increase 
afterwards without spoiling the pattern. 



94 OBSTE CEOCHET A3TD K2UTTUTG. 



ORN£ (CROCHET AND KNITTING. 

Oeio: Balls, similar to those used for fluted embroidery, 
are also made for knitting and crochet, and the designs are, 
if possible, even more beautiful. The knitting is done in 
variably in moss-stitch, with No. 12 wooden needles. The 
crochet is worked backwards and forwards, in single crochet, 
with the hook inserted under both sides of the chain part of 
the previous row. The worker is guided to the end of the 
row by a knot, as in fluted embroidery. The casting on of 
the knitting and the foundation chain of the crochet, must be 
done with four-thread Berlin wool, matching the ground of 
the work in color ; and to both it is very advisable to add 
one or two rounds of double or treble crochet, in suitable 
colors, with four-thread Berlin. I have observed that gold 
color or maize, for the inner round, with, perhaps, dark green 
or claret for an outer one, always looks rich. In the outer 
round the orne fringe is crocheted, if it is intended to trim 
the article with it. But crochet, being solid, will bear a 
fringe of O. P. beads. 

Both these kinds of work are beautiful for throwing over 
lounges and sofas, or for covering fancy tables. The colors 
are exquisite and brighten with wear. The designs are most 
beautiful. I have before me a small table-cover, the design 
of which is a group of the most natural water-lilies imagin- 
able, with a very rich border of shells. It is knitted. No. 4 
knitting ball is also beautiful. No. 1 crochet ball makes a 
charming table-cover, the ground being white, with a wreath 
of roses. It would be a most appropriate gift for a bride. 
Every ball of wool is accompanied by an engraving and full 
instructions. I can hardly sufficiently commend this inven- 
tion, which has so rich an effect with so little pains or cost, 
and makes any roDin look bright and handsome* 



PATCHWOBK. 95 



PATCHWORK. 

This is a favorite amusement with many ladies, as by it 
they 6onvert useless bits of silk, velvet, or satin, into really 
handsome articles of decoration. Of the patchwork with 
calico, I have nothing to say. Valueless indeed must be the 
time of that person who can find no better use for it than 
to make . ugly counterpanes and quilts of pieces of cotton. 
Emphatically is the proverb true of cotton patchwork, Le 
jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle I It is not worth either candle 
or gas light. 

But scraps of the more expensive materials I have 
named, will really, with a little taste and management, make 
very handsome cushions, chair covers, and ottomans. 

The first care is to select a design; and it should be 
chosen with reference to your collection of scraps. If, for 
instance, you have an abundance of two leading colors, you 
may be able to work a pattern which would be impracti- 
cable had you only chance bits of a number of tints. Geo- 
metrical designs are always selected. Octagons, hexagons, 
cubes, stars, diamonds, triangles. If you are going to do 
a large piece of work, it is well worth procuring a die for 
stamping out a pattern of each of the sections, as you thus 
attain an accuracy hardly otherwise procurable. With this 
you stamp out a number of pieces of stout writing paper ; 
and then cover one side of each with the material, turning 
over the edges, and tacking them round. They are sewed 
together, on the wrong side, in their proper places, and the 
papers are generally, but not always, afterwards withdrawn. 
The principal care needed is to make the colors combine 
well. I give two patterns for Patchwork, merely by way 
of illustration. 



PATCHWOBK. 




No. 1. 



No. 1 lias three different shapes only, forming a succession 
of cubes, the top and two sides only being visible. If the 
top were made always of some dark color, and the two 
sides of two distinct shades of a lighter, the effect would be 
very good and extremely rich. For suitable combinations 
of color consult the article on Coloring. 

Pattern No. 2 consists of two different stars of light 
points, with a cross between. One star has simply sixteen 
pieces, all radiating from the centre, and so arranged that 
two shades of the same color should be used alternately for 
them. The centre of the other star is made in the same 
way, surrounded by eight diamonds, and further extended 
by a broad mitred band or ribbon, to form points. This makes 
the star of the same size as the simpler one, which may, if 
preferred, be substituted for it. 

A simple hexagon makes a very pretty design for patch- 
work, there being no possible difficulty in fitting the various 
pieces ; it has the advantage of requiring only one stamp. 

Narrow velvet ribbons may often be introduced, with 
gveat advantage, in patchwork, to throw up the colors. If, 
for instance, the outer band of the alternate stars in design 
No. 2, be made of black velvet ribbon, laid on, and merely 
folded at the angles, it will so relieve the other colors that 








!"H: ;, . ! " !..h: "vissk":"- 



PATCnWOETC. 



07 




No. 2. 



you may use, with propriety and effect, much brighter colors 
than would otherwise be admissible. 

Great care is required to make every point and angle 
sufficiently well. This must be done in tacking on the 
paper shapes, as well as, afterwards, in sewing the pieces 
together. 



5 



98 POINT-LACE. 



POINT LACE. 

Of all the various kinds of lace, that known as Point is 
considered the most valuable. It is — or I should rather say 
was — made entirely by the needle ; and was principally the 
work of nuns of the tenth to the sixteenth century. By the 
most tedious toil and elaborate designs, they produced, after 
perhaps spending a life-time on it, a marvellous piece of lace 
for the dress of a priest, an altar cloth, or something else 
connected with the ceremonies of the Roman church, valu- 
able and beautiful enough to be in harmony with all its 
other magnificent decorations. Sometimes, also, this lace 
was adapted to secular purposes ; designed as a gift which 
would insure the favorable consideration of some mighty 
sovereign — or to be purchased at a sum which would 
effectually increase the revenues of the convent. Of course, 
the very wealthiest only could venture to possess such 
expensive articles of dress, which descended through the 
various generations of a family, heir-looms, as much prized 
as the family diamonds, and considered, perhaps, as an even 
more exclusive proof of an ancient lineage. Since the 
French Revolution, however, there has been a greater 
abundance of this valuable lace — et pour cause. When 
churches, convents, and monasteries were ravaged during 
the Reign of Terror, and the priceless lace fell iato the 
hands of a rabble, who might indeed know something 
of the approximate value of gold and silver, but could not 
estimate the equally costly fabrics which they found among 

the ecclesiastical stores, it was sold, for really nominal sums, 
to the Jewish and other receivers of such ill-gotten goods, and 

|»y them oonveyed to England, and other countries, where a 

ready sale for it was anticipated, notwithstanding the marks 



SPANISH ROSE AND ITALIAN POINT. 99 

left on it of the brutal and ignorant hands through which it 
had passed. And even now, the trade in Old Point is 
chiefly among the Jews. 

But had there been ten times as much brought to light ns 
was actually discovered, there would not have been sufficient 
to materially lessen its value, so vast is the labor that is re- 
quired for even a very small specimen of the choicest sort, 
known technically as Spanish Rose Point. 

Spanish Rose Point was the production, chiefly, of the 
Spanish convents. It is very close, elaborate and massive, 
the edges of the scrolls and ornaments being raised very 
much, whence the lace has its name. I have succeeded in so 
closely imitating this lace, that it is hardly possible to tell 
the difference between that made three years, and the work 
of three centuries ago. I calculate, however, that the small 
collar worked as a specimen for the French Exhibition of 
1855, cost me quite $50, or £10. 

Italian Point is made with a flat linen braid, elsewhere 
described. (See Braids.) I was led to make this braid by 
a desire to repair a very beautiful robe, out of which some 
rats had apparently been making more than one luxurious 
meal. I was told it was impossible to do it ; and with 
womanly perversity chose to prove that there was nothing- 
impossible in it. To unpick a little and procure a morsel of 
the braid was easy, and coidd not make the robe any worse 
than it already was. The thread had to be made to resemble 
it ; then I was obliged to learn pillow lace-work, to imitate 
the braid. I succeeded in doing this ; and by setting some 
lacemakers to work, and showing them how, obtained braid 
enough to repair the dress. The rest was easy ; and when I 
returned it to Alton Towers (the seat of the great Catholic 
Earl of Shrewsbury), no one could have told where the new 
parts were. This work is, however, not nearly so tedious as 
Spanish Point, the braid taking up a considerable space in 



100 MODERN POINT. 

each pattern, while the lightest stitches only are employed 
in filling in the flowers and leaves. 

There is another variety of Italian Point also ; of this the 
ground is fine linen, which forms the foundation, the threads 
being drawn out for all the open parts, and left only in those 
which form the straight lines. When all the threads are 
drawn out which the design requires, the linen, now very 
little more than a collection of loose, ragged threads, is tacked 
in proper form on parchment, or toile ciree. The threads are 
then woven into bars, thus : suppose six parallel threads are 
left close together, for the purpose of being formed into a 
bar. You take a needle, threaded with Mecklenburg, and 
weave backwards and forwards on these six, always taking 
up three on your needle, until the length forms one solid, 
braid-like bar. 

These being all done in the same way, you fill in the pat- 
tern with wheels, foundation, edging, etc., like any other 
point lace, but that you use Mecklenburg threads only, no 
cottons, in this sort of lace, which was usually employed for 
borders of altar-cloths and other sacerdotal purposes. 

This lace belongs almost exclusively to the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. The designs worked in it were some- 
times strangely grotesque. I have seen specimens with 
figures of men and animals worked with inimitable accuracy; 
and I once possessed a set of lappets, each medallion of which 
was a scene from iEsop's Fables, worked so beautifully aud 
minutely that no painting could have given a more accurate 
idea of the subjects. As may be expected, perfect speci- 
mens of this sort of lace are very rare, aud proportionably 
valuable. 

Modern Point has outlines of cotton braid, filled in with 
the lighter stitches. It is very pretty, and oven handsome; 
but still uot to compare with the other kinds of point. It is 
sometimes called Lacct-work. 



THE MATERIALS AND OUTLINES 101 

There is one advantage Point Lace has over every other 
sort of work : its results are valuable, while the cost of ma- 
terial is a mere trifle. In this respect it forms a great con- 
trast to many other kinds of fancy work, in which the finished 
article is but little more valuable than the mere material. It 
has another also. Perhaps not very many ladies would care 
to work a collar that would occupy them six months, working 
two or three hours a day (although it must be remembered 
that Point Lace is never old-fashioned, and that it never 
wears out) ; but all are glad to be able to repair a costly col- 
lar, or insert new and beautiful fancy stitches, when the 
original have worn out ; or to modernize expensive lace or 
muslin-work; and for all these purposes, the Point Lace 
stitches will be found most useful, and, indeed, essential. 

The Materials. — Besides the braid above mentioned, are 
a selection of the cottons of Messrs. W. Evans & Co., including 
Mecklenburg Nos. 1, 7, 80, 100, 120, HO, 160; Boar's Head 
Crochet Cotton, Nos. 40, 50, 70, 90, 100, 120, 150 ; and Mo- 
ravian, No. 70. Of course, all these sorts are not needed for 
one article ; but the set will suffice for any design ever given 
in Point Lace ; and, as I have mentioned elsewhere. (See 
Cottons.) I have never found any cottons but those of 
Messrs. W. Evans & Co., with which I could successfully 
imitate the old Point. Besides the braid and cottons, you 
want a pattern. In olden times these were drawn on parch- 
ment; but I have found paper answer perfectly well, if lined 
with calico, or, for antique Point, with alpaca. The design 
rs drawn on paper, colored on one side and white on the 
other. After being inked, the outlines are cut out, and the 
paper is mounted on calico, which is pasted on it, the edge 
being turned over to protect the paper from being torn. 

The Outlestes. — Italian braid, or the only substitute now 
procurable, linen or cotton bi'aid (which must be closely 
woven), requires to be run on at both edges, like broad silk 



102 



BRUSSELS A5D SORRENTO EDGE. 



braid. The article on Braiding describes the process for 
either broad or narrow braiding; but as this has to be 
removed from the foundation, which is not the case with any 
other kind of braid-work, the ends, instead of being drawn 
through to the other side, must be neatly turned under and 
securely fastened together. 

In Spanish Rose Point, the outlines are made of a single 
thread only; No. 1, 7, or 12, Mecklenburg, is used. It is 
sewed down along the outline with another fine thread, in 
stitches taken across it, and close enough to hold it firmly 
down. Joins are made by laying the two ends side by side 
and sewing them down together. Sometimes the pattern for 
Spanish point is drawn on toile ciree. 

The flowers, and other parts of the pattern, are filled in 
with what are termed Stitches ; the ground is made in Bars ; 
the outer fines finished with Edges. I may remark that button- 
hole-stitch is the foundation of almost all the Point stitches. 
Brussels Edge is the simplest stitch, 
being merely common buttonhole, worked 
at regular intervals, without drawing the 
thread tightly. Do about eight to the inch. 
Long Brussels has the needle put once 
round the thread, to give it a twist, and 
make it stand out farther from the foundation. 







No. 1. 



No. 2. 



Sorrento Edge (No. 1). — Do a loose buttonhole-stitch, 
and "ii this Loop, another, which draw tightly. Repeat this 
at half the distance. Work these two in succession. 



LONG BRUSSELS. 



103 



Venetian Edging (No. 2). — Do a Brussels-stitch, and on it 
four tight stitches. They ought not, however, to be drawn 
too tightly. 

Little Venetian (No. 3). — A Brussels-stitch, and one 
tight one on it, worked at equal distances. 

To fasten the Thread. — The thread 
must be firmly and neatly fastened to the 
braid, before you begin, no knots being per- 
missible in Point Lace. Run a few stitches 
on the braid, and then secure it, at the point 
where you wish to begin, by a tight button- 
hole-stitch, on the edge of the braid. In fastening off do 
the same, two or three buttonhole-stitches being needed. 




LACES. 



Brussels. — A succession of rows of Brussels edge, one 
worked on another. The only troublesome part is the last 
row, when it has to be joined to the braid. Draw your 
needle through the stitch of last row, and then take one 
through the braid, letting the thread cross over the loop 
just made, and inserting the needle in the braid from be- 
neath. 





No. l. 



No. Q. 



Long Brussels (No. 1). — Like Long Brussels edging, 
some times worked over a thread. 



104 



VENETIAN, SORRENTO AND ENGLISH LACE. 



Lined, or Filled Brussels (No. 2.) — Take a bar of 
thread across from right to left, half the depth that the 
line of Brussels should be. Work back, from left to right 
in Brussels, but over this bar. The needle should slip under 
the bar before inserting in the braid, and go over it in draw- 
ing it out. 






No.l. 



No. 2. 



No. 8. 



Venetian" Lace (No. 1) has always the line from left to 
right in Venetian edging, and from right to left in Brussels. 
This is done because Venetian can only be worked in one di- 
rection, and the alternate row of Brussels saves the fastening 
on and off so frequently. 

Sorrento Lace, No. 2, can only be worked from left to 
right. It consists of successive rows of Sorrento edging, 
the short stitches of one line being worked on the long of 
the last. 

E.vglisii Lace (No. 3). — Make a succession of twisted 
parallel lines, either diagonally or horizontally, in the space 
to be filled. They are done thus : Fasten on the thread, 
and carry it across the space to be tilled ; secure it, by a 
buttonhole-bar, to the opposite braid ; cany it hack again, 
twisting the two threads together, by passing the needle 
under the one already made, until they form one. Fasten 

where it began, and run a little way on the braid to the 
place where the next, bar should start. Continue thus, until 

nil the bars in one direction are done. Now take the tirst, 

thread in a precisely oontrary direction, passing the needle 



OPEN ENGLISH LAdfe — ENGLISH ROSETTES. 



105 




under all the bars. Fasten to the braid at the opposite side ; 
twist back to the first place where they cross, when pass the 
needle under the single thread, on the opposite side, then 
under again on the twisted side of the new bar ; work thus 
round the cross, always under the new bar and over the 
other, until it is large enough. Twist on the single thread 
until you come to the next cross, when work another spot 
— and so on, until the space is rilled. 

Open English Lace. — Worked in the 
same manner, on double the number of 
threads. The slanting lines only are dou- 
ble ; and there being eight threads at every 
cross, instead of four, you take the needle 
under one, and over the next (but always 
under the new bar), in making the spot. It is necessary to 
be very careful about distances in this pattern, otherwise 
the threads will not cross at the places proper for the 
spots. 

English Rosettes are sometimes called 
spider's webs. Indeed they greatly resem- 
ble them. They are worked on 3, 4 or 5 
twisted bars, making 6, 8 or 10 lines radia- 
ting from the centre, according to the shape 
of the space to be filled. Do them like 
those of English lace, the single line of every new bar going 
under the others, and over them in twisting back, so that all 
are caught together in working. When you have done 
every line but the last, and that so as to have twisted to the 
middle, take a buttonhole-stitch across all the lines, to hold 
them together. Now pass your needle, under one line; then 
again under it and the next ; under the last (so that the 
thread goes round it). Weave all round hi this manner, 
until the spot is as large as you desire, when you finish 
twisting the half bar, and fasten ofF. 

5* 




106 CORDOVAS, TAXES"«nESTSX5 A>~D FOUNDATION tACE- 




H±3T.iQrxz Lace. — This is always done 
with extremely fine cotton. Make a twisted 
bar, like the first for English lace. Do a 
single line for another, about the twelfth of 
an inch off Twist back on it, a little way, 
then, across the twisted bar and the single 
one, darn a spot of about the eighth of an inch. Twist 
again as much, up the single bar ; and do another spot. 
Work up these two bars thus ; then another pair, at a little 
distance ; and so on through the space, always in one direc- 
tion. Cross them in the opposite, having care that the pair 
of threads should come where the bars of the other are 
separate. The spots must come in the spaces between. 
Always make the single thread come under the bars already 
done : and in twisting back, take a stitch between every 
pair, which serves to keep them separate. 





Cordovan Lace (Xo. 1). — Is similar to the preceding, 
but the lines are worked in threes, the spots being worked 
across them. 

Yai.kv iiivNxs Lace is rarely used, being simply close 
fine darnin_ r . 

The following stitches are all varieties of buttonhole. 

I. No. 2). — Tin- is lined buttonhole, or 

filled I : but tilt- stitches are taken as close to each 

other < v.nly. In BO rows, 

one stitch i- taken bet PO, of the previous. The fol- 

B, 



A>~nVERP A>~D OPES' AM WEEP LACE, 



10? 




H ■ • ' "■ 



a. a ■ _ 






So. t 



Bd :. 



So. 3. 



By missing the space of one stitch, at certain regular in- 
tervals, Close and Opes Diamond are made. The former 
(Xo. 1) has four, the latter (Xo. 2) has nine holes. 

A> i weep Lace (Xo. 3.) — The holes are so arranged as to 
form a sucession of diamonds. 

1st Hoic. — Do 4 stitches, leave the space of 4 ; do 11 leave 
the space of 4. 

2d Rove. — Aliss the 4 worked, do 4 on the loop, 10 over 
11, and 4 on the next loop. 

Sd Ho'.r, — Like 1st : with 11 on the centre 12 of the 15. 
±th Hoic. — 7 stitches, miss the space of 4, 4 over the cen- 
tre of 11 ; miss the space of 4 ; do 4 on the loop — this, 
being succeeded by 7. makes 11. 

5th Sow. — 11 stitches, miss the space over 4. 7 stitches. 
6th Hoic. — Like 4th. This completes a diamond. 

Open' A:stwerp is worked backwards and 
forwards, and not over a thread. It also has 
six rows. 

1st Hoic. — S close stitches. Leave a loose 
loop over the space of 5. Endeavor to end 
the row with B. 
2d Soto. — 5 close over the 6 centre of B : 2 on centre of 
loop. Loops, of course, between. 

3d Hoic. — 2 close on centre 3 of 5 ; 5. namely 1 on 2, and 
2 each side of it. 

4th Sow. — Begin with 2 stitches on the loop before the 5 : 
4 on the 5, and 2 beyond them ; miss the space of the 2 close 
stitches. 




ins 



ESCATJER-STITCH — CADIZ LACE. 



bth Mow. — 5 on centre 6 of 8, and 2 on the loop. 

6th Mow. — 2 on centre of 5 ; 5 over 2 as before. 

Observe, that to give due effect to this stitch each line must 
be begun a little more in advance of the last than is usual 
with these stitches. This is done by running the needle a 
little more forward in the braid or other foundation. 






No. 1. 



No. 2. 



No. 3. 



Spotted Lace (No. 1). — Leaving the space of 3, do 2 close 
stitches; X miss the space of 5, and do 2 more. X repeat 
between the crosses only. In all the following rows, do 2 
on the centre of every loop. 

Venetian Spotted Lace (No. 2). — A space is filled in with 
Venetian bars (see Bars), worked across each other. Then, 
in each space, 4 English lace spots are worked. 

Escauek-stitch (No. o), is so called because the pattern 
resembles the steps of stairs. Do close-stitches; miss the 
space of Sf. In the next row, do 3 on the loop, and 6 beyond ; 
tli us making a loop over the last 3 of every 9 stitches. Do 
every row the same. 






No. 4. 



No. 5. 



Cadiz Lace (N<>. -1). — Tn tne fi "si rov, do close stitcTieR. 



TAN, IURCELONA, FLORT^NTTNF: AND ROMAN LACE. 109 



miss tlie space of 2 ; do 2 ; miss the space of 2. In the next, 
do 2 on each loop, making thns a short loop over the 2, 
and a long one over the 6. Work these two rows alternately. 
Fan Lace (No. 5). — 1st Mow. — Do 6 stitches, and miss the 
space of 6. 

Id Mow. — Do 5 stitches on 6, and miss the same space as 
before. 

3d Mow. — Do 6 stitches on the bar ; and, missing the 
stitches, make a loop over them. 
4th Mow. — Like 2c?. 

Barcelona Lace (No. 6). — Do 1 row of Sorrento edging; 
work back on it, by making 4 stitches on the long space, and 
missing the short one. 

Florentine Lace. — 9 close-stitches, miss 
the space of 4. Repeat this, and it will form 
a foundation. 

1st Mow. — Working back, 4 stitches on 
the loop, miss the 9 stitches. 
2c? Mow. — 9 on loop, miss the 4. 
3c? Mow. — 4 on loop, 4 more on the centre of 9. 
4th Mow. — 3 stitches on the small loop, 3 more over 4, and 
3 on the next loop, leaving a loop over the 4. 

Roman Lace. — 1st Mow. — Do 5 stitches 
close together, and leave the space of 4. 
2c? Mow. — 4 on the loop, and 4 on the 5. ■ 
3c? Mow. — Leave a loop over the centra 
3 of 5 in the 1st row ; do 5. 

4th Mow. — 4 on 5 ; 4 more on the loop. 
5th Mow. — Like 3d; only that the loop is to come over 
the centre of the 5 of the 3d row, so that the holes will not 
fall in the same place. 

In repeating this pattern, omit the 1st row, which was 
merely a foundation. 







110 



MECHLIN WHEELS — BEESWING LACE. 




Mechlin Wheels. — Do lines of button- 
hole (Venetian) bars, in one direction, dis- 
tant about the third of an inch from each 
other. Cross them with other bars, at the 
same spaces, in closing which, at every cross, 
you will work a wheel, thus : cover the 
thread with buttonhole, a little beyond one cross ; then carry 
the thread round by slipping the needle through every bar, 
always at equal distance from the centre. To secure the 
round in its place, you may pin it down with a needle. 
Cover it with buttonhole-stitch, making, if you please, Ra- 
leigh dots at intervals. 

Bee's-wtng Lace. — This must always be 
worked with 150 Evans' Boar's Head Cot- 
ton. It is particularly adapted for filling up 
triangular spaces. Begin across a corner, 
with a loose bar. Twist back to the centre, 
on which do 4 buttonhole-stitches. Finish 
twisting. X Rim up the side of the braid even with the 
buttonhole-stitches. Make another loose loop, and do 4 but- 
tonhole on the 4. Another loose loop, aud fasten to the 
opposite side of the braid. Twist back half the last loop, 
and do 4 stitches; twist the rest. Take a double bar 
across from the base of one loop to that of the other, 
across the first four buttonholes ; work on it in Vene- 
tian dots ; twist back half the next loop ; make 4 but- 
ton hole-stitches on the centre ; twist back the rest. 
X make another set of loops in the same way, repeating be- 
tween the crosses. Each little pattern, of double button- 
boles, ami the dotted bar beyond it makes something like a 
bee's-wing. Each line will, of course, have an extra bee's- 
H'ing in it. 




VENET1 \N BAKS. 



Ill 



jE€kbH 



tNiWiiBiii^iiiwiim 



KSiKKoIBfBhiin 
jjSjjggSgiiii 



Two other varieties of spotted lace may be 
employed advantageously in filling in flowers. 
In the first do first a row of lined long Brus- 
sels, and the next row, carrying a bar across, 
do 4 foundation-stitches in every stitch. Re- 
peat these alternately. Another may be 
made thus : do 4 close long Brussels, miss the space of 4 
alt ernately. 

2d Mow. — 4 close long Brussels on loop, miss the space 
of 4. 

3d Mow. — Take your thread backwards and forwards, 
across the space to be worked, making a bar of 5 or 6 threads, 
instead of a single one. Work over this, in close long Brus- 
sels, precisely as if it were a single thread, 4 stitches on 
every loop. 

Do these last two rows alternately. Both these stitches 
must be done in Evans' Boar's Head, 150. 



BARS. 



I have already mentioned that Mars form the ground of 
all varieties of point lace. They are 

Venetian Bars, of 1, 2, or perhaps 3 
threads, taken close together, and covered 
with buttonhole-stitch. Sometimes they have 
branches. When this is the case, cover the 
mam bar with buttonhole as far as the first 
branch ; make that, always managing so as 
to finish the buttonhole again at the main line, whicb 
continue. Any number of branches may thus be worked- 



^0^% yi 



112 POINT D'ALENCON, ENGLISH AND KALEIGE EARS. 



mnamritrnwurfinnnnimi 



ni mmVHmntii ih<iMimD 



No. L 





No. 2. 



No. 8. 



Edged Venetian Bars (No. 1) have a line of Brussels or 
other edge worked on one or both sides. 

Dotted Venetian Bars (No. 2). — While working the 
ordinary bar, hold out every sixth stitch a little way, with 
another needle, and work two or three buttonhole-stitches 
on the loop. Then continue the bar. 

Sorrento Bars (No. 3) are merely closely twisted threads. 
Sorrento-edge Bars are lines of thread on which Sor- 
rento edging is worked, just as it would be on braid. 

Point-d'Alencon Bars are merely the 
common herringbone-stitch, the threads be- 
nig twisted once or oftener, according to 
eth depth of the space to be filled. 

English Bars are always worked between 
two lines of edges, and with very fine cotton. 
Take three or four closely twisted bars be- 
tween two opposite stitches, all of them on 
one of each edge-stitch. Miss the next, and 
do the same number on the following bar. 

Raleigh Bars arc the most complicated ot 
all, and may have even some historic interest, 
from my having copied them from a collar 
once worn by the great Sir Walter Raleigh, 
and which remains an heirloom among the 
descendants of his family. Tt is very rich and 
beautiful in effect, and invariably forms the ground of thtf 
most beautiful lace. Begin as for Venetian, and after every 





POTNT EDGE. 113 

eighth or tenth stitch, instead of making the usual loop, slip 
it under the bar and bring it up on the right hand of the 
loop, which, when you have made it about an inch and a half 
long, you will hold down with the thumb of the left hand ; 
pass the needle six times round the right-hand side thread 
of the loop, and generally draw it up to form a knot, thick 
on one side, and with a single thread on the other. Slip the 
needle through it, above the bar ; and again work the pro- 
per number of bar stitches. 

Point Edge. — This edge is characteristic 
of Old Point, and so well recognized as be- 
longing to it only, that when I showed some 
I had made to one of the first dealers in Lon- 
don, she replied: "I suppose, madam, you 
are not three hundred years old ; but I did 
not think any had been made within that time." It is always 
worked on an outline thread, which is afterwards to be 
covered with buttonhole stitch. Generally, the scallop is 
formed of six loops — three at the base, two on three, and one 
on two ; but sometimes four, sometimes two only, are taken 
as the base ; and there are many other variations, though the 
mode of working is always, in principle, the same. Tack 
down on your pattern a thread of Moravian, in the form you 
intend to have them. (See engraving.) Do this by making 
first the three loops ; then carrying the thread back for two, 
and again for the one. Carry the thread down the side, and 
a little way along the foundation bar (for the points ought 
not to touch), and then make the next set. To cover them, 
begin with the point. Fasten on the thread to the Moravian, 
and cover the loop with buttonhole, with Raleigh dots at 
intervals. Run the "thread in the Moravian to the base of 
the two ; do them the same ; and finally the three. This 
edge is always worked with Mechlenburg thread, in one of 



114 



GR01TNTHXG BARS — VETSTIKGS. 



the fine numbers. The same may be said of Raleigh Bars, 
Sorrento Edge Bars, and all the varieties of Venetian. 

Grounding Bars are small circles, loops, 
scallops, and other fanciful forms, always 
worked in Raleigh bar-stitch, and on those 
bars. If repairing lace, you must imitate the 
others in the same piece ; if working a new 
design, the form of such bars is usually worked 
on the engraving or pattern. 






I have spoken of the heavy raised work characteristic of 
Spanish Rose Point. It is done by tacking down on the 
pattern, in the requisite form, a number of lengths of Mora- 
vian, tapering them towards the extremities, if the usual 
semicircular form be in the pattern. Fourteen to twenty 
threads will not be too many for the thickest part. You 
then work them on the edge of the flower or scroll, in button- 
hole-stitch, your needle passing not through, but viider the 
whole of the threads, thus forming them into one solid mass. 
The edge is finished either with Raleigh dots, a single or 
double line of loops, or fine point edge. The outlines of the 
Bcrolls and designs of Spanish Point, and especially the outer 
edge of the collar, have frequently a doable line of Moravian 
tacked down to give it strength and thickness. 

V i:i>nNGs. — It is often necessary to vein leaves, stems, etc., 
when these are worked in foundation stitch. Where the 
vein is bo OOOOT, miss every alternate stiteh ; and he careful 



POTTOIIOMANIE. 115 

m taking the next row of stitches to take up the thread which 
would otherwise he loose across the last. Of course, it does 
not follow that veinings are made in a straight line. Part 
may he made on one line, which is finished in close founda- 
tion-stitch ; the open-work heing resumed in the next at the 
point where left off in the former ; and so on. 

To remove a completed piece of j)oint work from the paper, 
cut all the threads at the hack, and then, the work being 
loose, pick out all the threads. 

For hints on modernizing Old Point, see Transfer-work. 



POTICHOMANIE. 

Poti-chiko, or Potichomakie, although not belonging in 
any way to the art of needle-work, is so generally and de- 
servedly popular, as a branch of fancy-work, that I venture 
to give it a place here. It bids fair to contribute more to 
the decorations of our drawing-rooms and boudoirs, at small 
expense and with very little labor, than any that has made 
its appearance for the last half century. Poti-chino, to which 
the significant word manie has been added by our Parisian 
sisters, is the art of converting very ordinary glass vases into 
imitations of Etruscan, Dresden, or Chinese jars, as beautiful 
as the originals, at a tenth part of the cost ; and with the 
additional recommendation to the friend or sister to whom 
they are given that the graceful ornaments are the results of 
our own skill and taste. 

Potichomanie, as it is generally called, is an art which was 
brought out in Paris, and was received there with all the 
extravagance of admiration characteristic of the impression- 
able inhabitants. Every lady was busy cutting out sheets of 



116 POTICHOMAOTE. 

paper, and making her fingers disagreeable with varnish and 
gum-water; and we believe one-half the gentlemen were 
most industriously idling over the same elegant toil; for 
what an admirable excuse for lingering in a fair lady's bou- 
doir is the offer to dissect for her some of the Chinese beau- 
ties or Assyrian deformities which are to form the decorations 
of the Poti-chino. Doubtless the employment will serve as 
a subject for satire, as every other feminine occupation has 
done ; but it must be admitted that it has merit which will 
render it an universal favorite ; none the less so that there is 
some visible effect as the result of a morning's work, whilst 
in some other fancy-works it requires the labor of weeks to 
complete anything of use or ornament. 

The materials for this work are glass vases; sheets of paper, 
with figures, flowers, and various other designs ; dissolved 
gums; paint brushes, with very long handles; unalterable 
varnish ; prepared linseed-oil colors ; essence of turpentine. 

The sheets of paper prepared for Poti-chino are colored 
with various designs appropriate to the different styles of 
vases. Some have figures, birds, plants, dragons, and mon- 
strosities of all kinds, d la Chinoise. Another sheet of 
figures of the most graceful character, in a dull red color 
outlined with black, are destined for Etruscan jars. Exquisite 
medallions and other subjects are intended for Sevres. Comi- 
calities which seem fresh from Nineveh will enable us to imi- 
tate the Assyrian stylo. 

The candlestick of which we give an engraving, (see Plate 
IV., Fig. 2,) imitates Sevres. The medallions have exquisite 
views of the noblest public buildings in Paris. The ground 
is the beautiful Sevres bine, and the ornaments in gold. Glass 

table-tops, <l<>ne in this work, :ire ext remely beautiful. There 

is :i branch of thi* art called Diaphanie, especially adapted 

for Windows, being an admirable imitation of stained glass. 
All these, have to be carefully cut out with fine scissors, 



POTICnOMAXIE. 117 

not leaving any part of the ground, but making every deco- 
ration as clear as if it were painted. 

Have a large cardboard box, with divisions for the differ- 
ent classes of subjects; and sort them as you go on. 

"Wash the glass vases carefully, and lay out on your table 
(which will be better without a cloth) all the materials which 
we have enumerated, together with a small basin of clean 
water and a towel for the purpose of rinsing your fingers, 
and a fine cloth for your work. 

Have three or four folded sheets of blotting-paper on 
which to lay the designs, which must be gummed over on 
the colored side, each one, as soon as it is done, being placed 
in the position in which it is to remain inside the vase. Rub 
your finger or the towel evenly along it, to prevent any air- 
bubbles finding place between the glass and the paper. This 
displacing of bubbles (which must be done by pressing the 
nail along the part and so forcing them out) is sometimes the 
most tedious part of the whole process. When the vase is 
sufficiently covered with the design, it must be allowed to 
dry, and then a coating of gum put at the back of the paper. 
This being also dry, add a coating of unalterable varnish, and 
with a fine cloth dipped in warm water take off every spot 
of gum and varnish from the glass. 

The oil-color must then be applied, either with a broad 
brush, or by pouring it in and turning the vase round and 
round until the color adheres to every part. When the oil- 
color is too thick to run, it may be tempered with the spirits 
of turpentine. 

Another coat of varnish is then given, over the color, for 
the purpose of enabling the vase to bear being filled with 
water. Prevention being, however, considerably better than 
cure, we should counsel our friends to have an inner jar of 
zinc, tin, or glass, if they wish to put flowers in their vase of 
Poti-chino. 



118 SWISS LACE. 

Such is the art, as described by the most skillful profes- 
sional workers ; to whose directions we have added, without 
scruple, the results of our own experience. A few further 
words of counsel will not, we trust, be either found useless 
or thought officious. 

In every effort at Poti-chino, regard should be had to the 
genre of work we are attempting to imitate ; and this should 
not only govern the selection of the form of vase, but also 
the color of the ground and the general details. Thus we 
should study Etruscan vases, if we would produce a correct 
copy of them. We shall generally find the ground either 
black or a sort of red color. Chinese vases, again, have a 
distinguishing ground ; Sevres, the beautiful blue which bears 
its name. Some of the most delicate and graceful French 
porcelain was a running stone-and-gold design on a pink 
ground. All these combinations must be studied if we would 
produce any imitation-china worthy of the name ; and when 
a day is to be spent in Poti-chino, the previous one should be 
devoted to the examination of the originals in any collection 
at command. 



SWISS LACE. 

This term is applied to every article of needle-work in which 
muslin or cambric forms the design, and net the ground-Avork. 
Probably it is so called because the most beautiful specimens 
of this species of fancy-work come from Switzerland. Of 
course, tht" one material is laid or applied over the other; 
hence it is sometimes termed muslin applique. The design 
is marked OH the nuislin, which is then laid over the net, and, 
in any but small pieces, both are put in a frame. They are 
worked in Tambour-stitch. Handkerchiefs, collars, sleeves, 



TAMnOUR-WORK. 1 1 9 

and all fine articles are, however, done in the hand. The two 
materials being run together, are tacked on toile ciree. The 
outlines are then traced in fine embroidery cotton, say No. 
36, except for French cambric, which must have a still finei 
cotton. The outlines are then sewed closely over, a thread 
of No. 20, 24, or 36, Evans' Boar's Head being held in. 
This holding in a thread, in sewing over outlines, wonder- 
fully improves them, both in appearance and durability. The 
outer edges of collars, etc., are buttpnholed over. A double 
line of tracing, one thread quite close to the other, should be 
previously done, and the buttonhole-stitches be small and of 
the same length. Sometimes the outlines of the design are 
worked in a sort of eyelet-hole-stitch, thus : the pattern, if 
intended to be so worked, will have a double line of outlines, 
one about the eighth of an inch within the other. Trace 
both these. Take a very coarse sewing needle (No. 3 or 4) 
and 150 Evans' Boar's Head Cotton; make a knot in thu 
thread to fasten on, and do a row of small holes between 
these two lines throughout the pattern by taking up three 
or four threads on the needle and sewing them over two or 
three times ; then passing the needle an equal distance, to 
form the next hole. The outlines are to be sewed with a 
thread in, as before, taking the stitches in the holes, to keep 
them open. 

French cambric, for very fine work, widow's lawn, or fine 
clear book muslin on Brussels net, are the materials for this 
work. 



TAMBOUR-WORK. 

Tambouk-work is embroidery done in a stitcn precisely 
resembling chain-stitch in crochet. The design being marked 
on the material, it is placed in a frame. The needle used 



120 ' TAMBOURED NETTING 

resembles a fine crochet hook, fastened into an ivory handle 
by means of a small steel screw at the side. The thread is 
held between the finger and thumb of the left hand, beneath 
the work. The hook is inserted with the right, and draws 
through a small loop. Keeping this on the hook, insert it 
again at a short distance and draw up another, through it. 
Continue thus making a succession of chain-stitches, first out- 
lining each flower or leaf, and then filling it up. The needle, 
in drawing up each loop, is slightly twisted, by a motion 
which has the effect of retaining the thread on the hook. 
The small screw ought to rest against the thumb, by which 
means it will be easy to regulate the amount of movement. 
To fasten off, draw the thread through on the right side, cut 
it off, a few inches from the work, and take it through to the 
wrong side, across the last chain to fasten it. 

Tambour Applique-work is where one material is tam- 
boured on another. The design is then in the upper, which 
is always the heavier material, and the ground in the lower. 
That part of the upper which covers the ground is afterwards 
cut away. The greater part of the muslin curtains which 
are so ornamental are worked in this way. 

Tamboured Netting. — This is the only method of em- 
broidering netting, except by the stitch. The design is 
marked on fine, light-colored crape. This is stretched over 
the netting; and both are put in a frame together. The 
embroidering is done with silks, to imitate nature, flowers 
being the favorite designs. Every part is afterwards out- 
lined with gold thread, No. 0, done also in tambour-stitch. 
When the work is completed and taken out of the frame, the 
orape is drawn out, thread by thread. Very beautiful purses 
are made in this manner. Fine crochet silk is used. 



TAPISSERIE D'AUXERRE — TAPE-WORK. 121 



TAPISSERIE D'AUXERRE. 

Tapisserle d'Auxerre is a pretty and very simple kind 
of work. It is merely darning on black or Avhite net, by 
thread, in colored wools. A variety of simple patterns may 
be made. I have done in this way shoes for young children, 
making them up with cork soles, and binding and lining them 
neatly. Also, sofa cushions, bags, and pretty, warm neck- 
ribbons. The net which has diamond-shaped holes ought to 
be selected. 

Tapestry. — (See Berlin-work.) 



TAPE-WORK. 

Tape-work is a very strong and usefid trimming for 
many articles of ladies' and children's dress; while it is light 
and pretty enough to be ranked as fancy-work. 1ST arrow 
tape of the best quality is employed for this purpose ; and 
you require no material except it, with a needle threaded 
with suitably fine cotton. Begin with the extremity of the 
tape, folding it into a point. Sew the two sides, or edges, 
of the tape together, just catching, also, the edge of the tri- 
angular fold. Make another point quite close to it, but in 
the opposite direction ; sew that in like manner. Then one 
like the first. Continue thus making a zig-zag piece of work 
until you have done the required length, when make one, 
two, or more rows more, and afterwards sew them together 
at the point, slipping the needle through from point to 
point. 

Very often small pieces of tape-work are connected and 

6 



122 THE TATTING-STITCH. 

formed into wheels, with a fancy muslin-stitch, peihaps a 
wheel or rosette in the centre. Children's collars are often 
made of a succession of these wheels, a couple of rows of the 
ordinary work making the neck-piece. 



TATTING. 

Tatting, sometimes called Frivolit6, deserves to be more 
popular than it is at present ; for though it cannot be done 
in such an infinite variety of patterns as knitting or crochet, 
those that are made in it are, at once, strong and handsome ; 
while it is so easy of execution, and requires only such sim- 
ple implements, that- it is particularly suitable for elderly 
people and invalids. 

An ivory shuttle, and a long pin, attached to a chain, or 
loop of thread and a ring, with the needleful of cotton or 
silk, are all that are needed. The shuttle is filled with cot- 
ton, an end being left. For some designs, this end is left 
very long, and a rug-needle threaded on it. I may observe, 
that a netting-needle is sometimes used as a substitute for a 
shuttle. It is very pleasant to work with, but not suitable 
for carrying in the pocket ; and as the convenience of being 
able so to carry it about is one of the chief recommendations 
of this sort of work, an ivory shuttle ought always to be pos- 
sessed, although a netting-needle, also, may sometimes be 
employed. 

The Tatting-stitch is formed by a double movement. 
Hold the shuttle lightly between the thumb and the first and 
second fingers of the right hand. Take the thread, a tew 
inches from tin; end, between the thumb and forefinger of 
the left band, and carry it round the other fingers, which 



PICOT. 123 

must be held a little apart, and back again to the thumb, 
where it is held, between it and the forefinger. By a jerk 
or movement of the right hand, throw the thread which goes 
between it and the left over the knuckles of the latter, and 
pass the shuttle up under the loop round the fingers, and 
above the thread round the knuckles. Draw it out again 
towards the right with a slight jerk, keeping the thread in 
an even horizontal line, and at the same time, contracting 
the fingers of the left hand, so as to slacken the thread over 
them, which thus forms a slip-knot on the straight thread. 
Draw this slip-knot close under the thumb, not by working 
the fingers, but by a backward movement of the wrist, the 
fingers being again extended. This is half the stitch. For 
the other half, drop the thread in front of the work, instead 
of throwing it over the hand, and insert the shuttle from the 
back, under the loop over the fingers. Draw out the shuttle, 
and finish the stitch, as before. If the shuttle be not drawn 
out quite straight, and held quite extended while the new 
loop is being slipped up to its place, the knot will be formed 
on the wrong thread, and it will be impossible to draw it up. 
This double movement is known in recipes as a double-stitch, 
because the half-stitch only was formerly known. When a 
given number of stitches is done, they are drawn up, either 
quite tightly, so that the first and last stitches touch, or with 
a bar of thread between. 

Picot. — Loops are joined to each other by means of a 
picot. It is to make these that the pin and chain are 
required. These pins may be made of silver, with a chain 
about three inches long, and a ring large enough to slip over 
the thumb ; but a large rug-needle, in which a coarse thread 
is knotted, with a loop at the end, for the thumb, will answer 
all the purpose. A sharp needle is unfit for this purpose. 
For coarse work, one of the large pins, called blanket-pins, 
is excellent. Having attached the pin to the thumb of tho 



124 TO JOrS"— BAES. 

left hand, where it hangs down ready for use, do the first 
stitch or stitches of the loop. When the picot is to he made, 
lay the point of the needle above and parallel with these 
stitches, close to them ; and "before making the next, pass 
the thread already round the fingers over the pin. Go on 
with the stitches without moving the pin, laying the thread 
over it, as often as a picot is to be made. When the loop is 
finished, withdraw the needle and draw it up. Picots are 
sometimes made merely for ornament. 

To jory. — This is always done to a picot, and generally 
after doing the same number of stitches as were done after 
the last picot of last loop. "With the needle, draw the thread 
which goes round the fingers through the picot, sufficiently 
to allow of the shuttle passing through. "When this is done, 
stretch it over the fingers again, and continue the work. 

Baes. — These are always done with a needle, which, at the 
commencement of the work, is threaded on the end of the 
shuttle-thread. Bars do not occur in all the tatting patterns ; 
but when they do, begin by threading on this needle (always 
a rug-needle), and tying it with a single-knot, merely to pre- 
vent it from slipping off. As in this design you usually 
begin with a bar, take up a loop of thread, about a yard from 
the needle, between the finger and thumb of the left hand ; 
both needle and shuttle being suspended from it. Take up 
the needle in your right hand, and stretch out a bit of the 
shuttle-thread over the middle finger of the left (not round 
all the fingers. With the needle, work on this bar as many 
stitches as may be ordered, making picots where required, 
either on the shuttle-thread, or that attached to the needle. 
The recipes invariably mention which. Observe, that to make 
. >u 'Irop the shuttle, and work with the needle. To 
you use tin- shuttle only. When picot< are 
• >n Ui.- rMofitahread, take care not to draw it tightly 

i n ill draw out the picot. 



TRANSFERRING. 125 

To join on a new Thread. — "When that in the shuttle 
is exhausted, fill it again, and join on, at the base of a loop, 
with a weaver's knot. Sometimes it happens that there is a 
thread left, not long enough for the next loop, but still, 
longer than that on the needle. If so, transfer the needle to 
it ; and after working in a little of the old end, cut it off. 

The Material is the Tatting Cotton manufactured on 
purpose for this work, by Messrs. "Walter Evans & Co., 
of Derby, England. 



TRANSFERRING. 

By this term is understood the art of puttmg embroidery 
or lace on a new ground, when that which originally held it 
is worn out. We all know that the ground of muslin or lace 
is the thinnest and most delicate work ; consequently, it is 
always that which wears out the soonest. In expensive 
French embroidery, the flowers should be carefully cut out 
with sharp lace scissors, and then tacked on toile ciree in the 
form to which you desire to remake the article. The out- 
lines of the shape should previously be drawn on the green 
side of the toile ciree. The various parts are then connected 
and formed into a complete piece of work, either by one of 
the point lace bars or by any of the methods known as gui- 
puring. (See &uipure-work.) Sorrento edge bars are very 
suitable, and make a very beautiful grounding. TJnless the 
work is extremely valuable, it will hardly pay to put the 
Raleigh bars, which are so very much more tedious than any 
other. But if you are making scraps of old point into a piece, 
it is necessary to use those bars to give the due effect. 

Should any piece be imperfect, you must outline it with 
thread and buttonhole it neatly, to make it whole, before 
beginning the ground. And any part which may be worn, 



126 VELVET BALLS. 

that has had fan ij stitches, whether in muslin or lace, must 
be freshly worked with others. 

A fresh edge may be worked, either by using a point edge 
or laying on several thicknesses of threads in scallops and 
covering with buttonhole-stitch, or by putting a narrow lace 
beyond a straight line, covered with buttonhole. Whatever 
edge is employed, this part must be done last. 

In transferring Honiton lace, remove the ground carefully 
and tack the sprigs and edge, face downwards, on the toile 
dree. Lay Brussels net over, and sew the edges with very 
fine thread. Cut out the lace under a large sprig, and work 
the edges to prevent them from tearing. Or Honiton may 
be guipured together, in lace guipure-stitch. (See Guipure.) 



YELYET BALLS. 

Velvet Balls (for trimming rigolettes, etc.) — The ma- 
terials are zephyr wool of the same color or colors as the 
article to be trimmed, with the Mecklenburg thread No. 1, 
of Messrs. Walter Evans & Co., of Derby, England. The 
pretty balls with which so many articles of dress are tasselled 
are made by tying a number of strands of wool at regular 
distances, and cutting through the wools between every two 
ties. You may wind over the hands of another person, or 
on a winding machine; but not on anything that will give 
way, as it is necessary to use some force in making your 
knots secure and compressing the wool as much as possible. 
About forty-eight strands will make a full, handsome ball, 
tied at every half inch <>r a little more distant. For making 
'• -', at least doable the number, cut at nearly an inch 

apart. STou may vary the pattern (it* two colors are em- 
ployed) by the mode of winding. By n ing two colors 



WIRE-WORK. 127 

together, winding both at one movement, a variegated ball 
is made. Wind eight white, four colored, alternately, and 
spots will appear. I think this the prettiest. If cut at all 
unevenly, they must be shaved afterwards. 

To thread the balls, thread a rug needle with Mechlen- 
burg No. 1, or netting silk. Fasten the end to the work. 
Make a thick knot at a little distance on the thread and 
slip on a ball, passing the needle in the direction of the 
wool, and taking care it does not drag. Another knot at an 
inch distance and another ball, and so on. 



WIRE-WORK. 

Baskets, vases, cigar-stands, and many other ornaments, 
are now made in wire-work. They are worked in beads, 
chenilles, silks and wools ; beads being at present the most 
popular. Choose a frame that has no rough edges or un- 
sightly joins; then cover it entirely by winding soft white 
braid, No. 8 to 12, round it. This serves a double purpose : 
it hides the wire and gives a material for the needle to hold 
on. The spaces are variously filled in. In baskets, the bot- 
tom is very often made of a piece of Berlin-work, grounded 
in white beads ; or filet, darned in an appropriate pattern. 
If the latter, the sides usually correspond with it. Or the 
divisions of the sides are filled by an open net-work of beads, 
lines being taken diagonally in one direction and crossed in 
the opposite. Usually, such work is done in two colors and 
sizes, the size of the lozenge being of white and the points of 
ruby or blue. As the needle passes in both directions through 
every point, it is needful that these beads be the largest. 
Suppose, for instance, you fasten on your thread and string 
five white, one ruby, alternately, to make one line. Secure 



128 



WIRE-WORK. 



it in its place, and then do the shortest cross line, when you 
will thread five white, but pass the needle through the ruby 
of the former line. Then do a line parallel -with the first \. 
then the fourth on a line with the second ; and so on. If the 
space decreases considerably towards the lower part, you 
will arrange so as to diminish also the size of the lozenge. 
The wires are frequently covered with beads bound round 
them. You use Mechlenburg thread, tcett waxed (and this 
ought always to be done for bead-work), and threading per- 
haps a row of beads at a time, wind them, and secure by a 
stitch on the braid before threading any more. 

O. P. beads are often employed for filling in the sides of 
card-trays and baskets. They are either simply threaded in 
diamonds, or formed into stars and other ornamental devices, 
each of which fills up one space. 

Chenille, silk and wool are 
also used for connecting the bars 
of wire-work. Chenille is most 
beautiful for this purpose. The 
size employed is a fine size of 
chenille ordinaire, not that em- 
ployed for embroidery. The en- 
graving is an illustration of this 
work. A wire frame, something 
like the petals of a largo lily in 
form, but all connected by a wire 
round the top", looks exquisiteln 
rich blue and canary color. The 
upright wires, of which there 
are twelve, are alternately swelling oul and bent in, to give 
the form of the Bower. The ohenille is carried from an inner 
wire under and round the outer, then under and round the 

ni'Xl inner, hack to the outer, round it, and tothe lirst inner. 
Tliis outer wire Is thus woven with two inner ones. The next 




WIRE CANVAS-WORK — PRINTER'S MARKS. 129 

line is done in a different color, with one of the inner wires 
already partly used, a new outer and new inner one. So all 
the six divisions are filled. The top wire and those of the 
stand are then wound with chenille, both colors together, 
and lying side by side. The beauty of this work depends 
much, though not altogether, on the elegance of form of the 
wire frame. 

Wire Canvas-work — Card and other baskets are often 
done in this work. The material is, in fact, a canvas made 
of wire, cut into form and strengthened by thicker wires 
round the edges. You buy the frame ready made, and 
painted bronze, steel, white, maize, or grey. Then work it 
like any other canvas-work, in appropriate designs. Take 
care that no threads cross the ground-work, where they 
would afterwards be seen ; and fasten off your ends neatly. 
Trim with ribbon bands, or fancy trimming. 



Printers' Marks. — It is frequently necessary, in writing 
directions for the work-table, especially for magazines, where 
the space devoted to the subject is limited, to contract the 
descriptions when there occur repetitions of the same stitches. 
To indicate such repetitions, printers' marks are used. They 
consist of crosses X X , daggers f f, asterisks * *, — etc. Si- 
milar ones are placed at the beginning and end of any part to 
be repeated, and the number of times is written after the last. 
Thus, X 3 dc, 5 ch, miss 4, X 3 times, would, if written in 
full, be 3 dc, 5 ch, miss 4 ; 3 dc, 5 ch, miss 4 ; 3 dc, 5 ch, 
miss 4. 

Sometimes one pair of marks is used within another- — thus, 
X 5 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 ; * 1 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 * twice ; 4 dc, 2 
«jh, miss 1 X twice. This, written at length, would be 5 dc, 
3 ch, miss 2 ; 1 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 ; 1 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 ; 4 dc, 2 

6* 



130 



PRINTERS' MARKS. 



ch, miss 1 ; 5 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 ; 1 dc, 3 ch, miss 2 ; 1 dc, 3 ch, 
miss 2 ; 4 dc, 2 ch, miss 1. 

The reader will see how great a space must he saved "by 
these contractions and signs, when the repetition would oc- 
cur 10 or 12 times, or perhaps even more frequently. She will 
especially hear in mind that repetitions always occur "between 
two similar marks in the same row or round. 



END OF INSTRUCTIONS. 



SHADING AND COLORING. 



A guide to needlework would be incomplete indeed with- 
out some directions on the choice and arrangement of colors. 
It is true that some people possess naturally an eye for color ; 
but this gift is comparatively rare ; and when it does exist, 
it requires careful cultivation, and a knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of harmonious tinting to make them fully competent 
to arrange the wools for a piece of Berlin-work, or, as it is 
technically termed, sort a pattern. There are mauy hun- 
dreds of shades of wools in every well-selected Berlin reposi- 
tory. Of greens alone there are ten or twelve distinct hues, 
and each of these has twelve to twenty shades. Now some 
of these will harmonize with one color, some with another. 
It is of the last consequence to the effect of a piece of work, 
to choose the tints that will work well together. Instead, 
therefore, of troubling the reader with a disquisition on 
primary, secondary, and tertiary colors, I will give a list of 
those that combine with the best effect. 



LEAVES. 



Bright Green Rose Leaf. — 1 dark Saxon green, 2 of 
bright emerald or grass green, and 2 of a somewhat yelloweT 
tint. 



181 



132 PI3TK FLOWERS — COMBINATION OF COLORS. 

Dark Kose Leaf. — Take black for the darkest shade, and 
4 shades of clear leaf-green. 

Faded Leaf. — Black, 2 greens, and a yellowish olive ; or 
for a light faded leaf, 3 shades of olive green (from the light- 
est), and two dark myrtle green. 

White Koses, and other White Flowers, may be 
shaded with green, grey or fawn, using the lightest and 
softest tints only. White silk, as nearly matching the white 
wool as possible, may be employed for the lightest shade, and 
white wool for the second ; for it is noticeable that silk, 
though exactly matching wool, from its texture, always looks 
lighter and brighter. Silk may, therefore, be taken for the 
lighter shade of any flowers. 

Damask Rose. — Black, 2 claret, geranium, and coral-pink. 

Plnk Flowers. — Ponceau, rose-pink, and 3 shades of clear 
pure pink. 

Yellow Flowers are shaded into orange or bronze. 

Light Blue into a Marie Louise blue. 

Dark Blue into black. 

Lavender into dark purple. 

Purple into black. 

Combination of Colors. — White flowers should be sur- 
rounded by rich, dark leaves, especially by those partaking 
of the olive-green tints. Blue flowers, should have faded, or 
olive-green, or yellowish-green leaves. But the more de- 
cidedly partaking of the brown autumn tints the better. 
The green shades of drab and fawn go well with lilac or 
pink. The wanner shades of the same with blue. Greys go 
well with pink, and slate with scarlet. The warm brown 
tints of drab with yellow. The reddish browns with green. 
The Bhades <>f maize, aprioot, and salmon, with either green, 
vinl.-i, or blue j bul it. is necessary to seleol them together, 
as eaoh Bhade would no1 go equally well with either. Blue 
and green (called by the French prtfuffi vaincit), qcvp' 1 



COMBINATION OP COLOES. 139 

• 

will, whatever Fashion may dictate, look well together. 
Some shades of yellow look well with some greens ; others 
are equally objectionable. They, also, require, therefore, to 
be carefully selected. 

In choosing a group of flowers to be w r orked on a light 
ground, see that one, at least, is of the same tint. On a bleu 
ciel (sky-blue) ground you should have, at least, one blue 
flower, or spray of them, of the same tints. When the 
ground is bght, avoid all very dark tints near it. In a dark 
ground, the 'brightest flowers should be near the centre of 
the group. There should be a certain richness about all the 
colors, the tone of the leaves, etc. ; while on the lighter 
grounds, the utmost softness is especially to be studied. 
Two or more bright colors should never be brought, in nee- 
dlework, into immediate contact, nor should black ever be 
worked next to a clear bright tint. Care is to be taken, 
especially, in harmonizing the various colors by the introduc- 
tion of the neutral tints. Greens are especially difficult to 
deal with, unless the worker be an artist, or, at all events, a 
student of nature. Look at any landscape, and see how hues 
and tints blend in the distance, how little you can distinguish 
of any bright glaring color in relief, and you will certainly 
never select such bright, sharp shades of green for the 
distant trees of a landscape as I have seen such parts 
worked in. 

It is needless to say that much of the effect of a piece of 
Berlin-work depends on the person w r ho selects the pattern 
and materials. An old worn shopkeeper of a design, that has 
lain for years hi the portfolio, is not likely to be a good pattern 
to work from. And even of those that are new and freshly 
done, there is a vast difference. One copy of the same 
design is often so superior to another as to be worth twice 
as much. It is important, therefore, that those who do 
not feel sufficiently experienced to choose pattern and wooIm 



134 COMBINATION" OF COLORS. 

for themselves, should be able to rely on the person to 
vrhom they intrust their commission, since otherwise a great 
outlay of time and money may be made, to very little pur- 
pose. 

The remarks I have made on the mingling of colors in 
patterns, and their harmonious combinations, are equally 
applicable t; etery other sort of fancy-work. 



PATTERNS*. 



KNITTED EDGINGS. 

Shawl Border. — This might very properly be termed 
Universal Edging, since it can be made of any width 
desired. It is rich and handsome looking, and especially 
pretty for Shetland shawls. Cast on any even number of 
stitches, and three over. 

1st Bow. — K 3 for edge. X m 2, k 2 t. X to the end. 

2d Bow. — X k 2, p 1 K X till three only are left, which knit. 

3c?, 5th and 7th Boies. — Like 1st. 

4th, 6th and 8th Boies. — Like 2d. 

9th Bow. — K 3. X k 2 t, to the end of the row. 

10th Bow. — Cast oft" 10, loosely, and knit the remainder 
of the row, decreasing often enough to have, again, only the 
original number of stitches ; but if the lace is wide, and the 
increase consequently great, k 2 t, every time you cast otf, 
so that at the 10 times, you will really cast off 20. In the 
remainder of the row, decrease so as to haVe the same num- 
ber of stitches on, with which you began. 

This completes one pattern. 

Diamond Pointed Edging. — Very useful for any purpose 
for which strength is essential. The points, being solid, are 
not so apt to tear, as in many other designs. Cast on 12. 

1st Bow. — K 3, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, k 5. 

2d Bow.—K 7, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 3. 

3d and 4th Bows. — Plain knitting. 

5th Bow. — K 3, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, k 5. 

6th Boic. — K 7, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 3. 

1th Bow. — Knitting. 

8th Boic. — Cast off 5 ; knit the rest. 

ISO 



136 SIX-HOLE POINT AND DEEP VANDYKE EDGING. 

Tkreehole Point Edging. — Cast on 5. 

1st Row. — K 3, m 2, k 2. 

2d Row.—K 3, p 1, k 3. 

3c? and 4th Rows. — Plain knitting. 

5th Row. — K 3, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2. 

6th Row. — K 3, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 3. 

7th Row. — Plain knitting. 

8t/i Roto. — Cast off 5 ; knit 4. 

Six-hole Point Edging. — Cast on as for the last, and do 
the rirst seven rows. 

8th Roic. — Plain knitting. 

9th Row. — K 3, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, k 1. 

IQth Roio. — K 3, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 3. 

11 th Roto. — Plain knitting. 

12th Row.— Cast off 8. Knit 4. 

Five-hole Edging. — Cast on 7 stitches; and woik like 
the six-hole edging from the 5th Row / casting off 6 stitches 
only, at the 12th row. 

Deep Vandyke Edging. — Cast on 10 stitches. 

1st Row. — K 4, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, m 2, k 2. 

2d Row.—K 3, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 4. 

3d Roio. — Knitted. 

4th Row. — k 1, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, m 4, k 2 t, k 1, k 2 t, m 
2, k 2 t, k 2. 

5th Roio. — K 4, p 1, k 4, p 1, k 1, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 2. 

Qth Roio. — Knitted. 

7th Row. — K 4, m 2, k 4 t, x m 2, k 2 t, x 4 times ; k 1. 

8'// Row.—K 1. x k 2, p 1, x 5 times; k 4. 

OiVt Row, — Knitted. 

10/ h Row. — Cast off 10. Knit the remainder. 

Soaxloped Edging. — Cast on 9 stitches. 

Ut Bow.—K 2, k 2 t, m 1, k 2, m 2, k 1, m 2, k 2. 

2d Row.—K 3, p 1, k 2, p ], k 2 t, m 1, k 2. 

3d Row. — K J, k •! t, in 1, k 9. 



KNITTED DRIVING GLOVE FOR A GENTLEMAN. 



137 



4th Bow. — K 2, m 2, k 2 t T k 1, k 2 t, m 2, k 2 t, k 2 t, m 
I , k 2. 

5th Bow.—K 2, k 2 t, m 1, k 2, p 1, k 4, p 1, k 2. 

6th Mow— *K 10, k 2 t, m 1, k 2. 

1th Bow. — K 2, k 2 t, m 1, k 2, m 2, k 5 t, m 2, k 2 t, k 1. 

8th Row.—K 3, p 1, k 2, p 1, k 2, k 2 t, m 1, k 2. 

9^ ifow. — K 2, k 2 t, m 1, k 9. 

10th Bow.— Cast off. 4 k 4, k 2 t, m 1, k 2. 

A Deep Lace Edging. — Cast on 17 stitches. 

1st Bow. — SI 1, k 2, in 1, si 1, k 2 t, pass the slip stitch 
over, m 1, k 3, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1. 

2d, 4th and 6th Boies. — K 1, p all but 5. K 5. 

3d Bow.— SI 1, k 2, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 2 t, k 1, k 2 t, m 1, 
k 3, m 1, k 2 t, ni 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1. 

5th Bow. — SI 1, k 2, m 1, k 2 t, k 1, m 1, si 1, k 2 t, pass 
the slip stitch over, m 1, k 5, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1. 

1th Bow. — SI 1, k 2, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 1, m 1, 
k 2 t, k 5, m 1, k 2 t, m 1, k 2 t, in 1, k 1. 

8th Bow. — Cast off 5, and knit the remainder. 




Knitted Driving Glove, for a Gentleman. — Mate- 
rials. — Strong worsted yarn, or Fleecy 8 thread wool, and 
knitting needles No. 14, 15, or 16. Cast on 48 stitches alto- 
gether. 

Join into a round. In ribhed knitting, 2 plain, 2 purled, 
alternately, do 1-J- to 2 inches. Then the spot pattern (see 
instructions). After 6 rounds, begin to make the thumb, 



138 KNITTED DRIVING GLOVE FOE A GENTLEMAN. 

thus — make 1 stitch, knit it plain in the following and all 
alternate rounds. In the 3d, make 1 on each side of that 
already made, which is the centre one of the thumb. In 
the 5th, make 1 °>n each side of the 3. You now have 
5. In the next, make 1 on each side of them; so on 
increasing two in every other round, and doing the same 
pattern as on the rest of the glove, throughout, until you 
have fifteen in the thumb. Continue without increase 
until you have done enough to come, easily, to the division 
between the thumb and hand. Slip all the stitches, except 
these 14, on other needles. Put these on 2 ; on a third 
cast on 6, in the same way as you would for a foundation. 
Join this into a round. Do the length of the thumb. Close, 
by knitting two together on each needle, until it is quite 
closed up. 

Now, resume the hand, taking up the foundation of the 
six made stitches, so as to join them on. Do about la- 
unches, before beginning to form the fingers. On the 
stitches taken up for the fore-finger depends the sot of the 
glove, and whether it is right-hand or left. The six made 
stitches should always form the front of it, and if 
you take them after eight more, then make four, as for the 
thumb, and close, it will make the right-hand glove. If 
you take these six first, then eight more of th,e round, then 
make four, close, and knit, it will suit the left hand. After 
making this finger long enough, close like the thumb. The 
inn Idle finger takes up the foundation of the 4, 6 from the 
palm of the hand, 4 new cast on, and 7 from the hack of the 
hand. Third finger the same. The remainder, taking up 
the foundation of the last 4, without making any new, form 
the littlo finger. All the ends, when cut off, must be drawn 
in, and fastened off on the wrong side. The inner parts of 
the fingers may he lined with chamois leather. The coarser 

tKe needles employed, the larger will be the glove. I men* 

tion, therefore, three sizes. 



KNITTED EIGOLETTE. 



139 



Lady's Winter Over-Gi,oves. — These are most comfort- 
able articles of dress in cold weather, especially for those 
ladies who require the use of their hands when out of doors 
and do not like to be burdened with a muff, yet suffer from 
cold. 

Select eight-thread Berlin wool, of black, or any dark color, 
and about No. 1 7 needles. Proceed exactly as for the gentle- 
man's glove, until you come to the fingers, which knit alto- 
gether, like an infant's glove. Take care to close into a good 
shape, the six made stitches being before the palm ones in 
one, after in the other. These six must be the beginning or 
end of one needle. Of them k 1, k 2 t. Now knit within 
three of half the round. K 2 t, k 1. The other half round 
the same. Knit one j)lain round and repeat ; do these two 
rounds until there are twenty-four only altogether. Then 
close like the toe of a stocking. (See instructions.) 

Knitted Rjgolette. — Materials. 
— Four-thread Berlin wool, eigh- 
teen skeins of any bright color, and 
thirty of white. Ivory needles, No. 
8. Also a reel of the royal Mech- 
lenburg thread, No. 1, of Messrs. 
W. Evans & Co., of Derby, Eng- 
land. 

With the colored wool, cast on 
two hundred stitches. Do one 
ridge. (See instructions also for 
Pyrenees Diamond Knitting and 
Palls.) Join on the white wool. 
Purl one row. Then do eight rows, 
Pyrenees pattern. Ridge (colored). 
White. Purl 1, and do eight more 
Pyrenees. Another edge, colored. 
Join on the white. Do ten rows, 




140 KNITTED RIGOLETTE. 

altsrnately puiied and plain. Knit with every stitch of the 
next row one of those of the puiied white row after the mid- 
dle ridge, so that this white work, which forms a lining for 
the open Pyrenees, be joined to it. Do eleven more plain 
white rows ; cast off, and sew to the casting-on stitches. 
Draw up the ends so that the two ridge edges join and form 
a rounded extremity. 

The hack of this rigolette is something in the form of a 
half handkerchief. Cast on one hundred stitches with the 
colored wool and do one ridge. Join on the white ; purl one 
row ; do six Pyrenees. Another ridge. Join on white ; purl 
one row ; then do about six inches, decreasing three at the 
commencement of every row until half the number of stitches 
only remains. It only remains to sew this to the front, so 
that it comes sufficiently far down on each ear ; and to finish 
the rigolette with the ball trimming. 

Make one hundred and thirty small balls and twenty-four 
large ones. Make the latter into two handsome tassels, of 
four drops, with three balls on each. Join to the ends. 
Thread a rug needle with a long thread of Mechlenburg. 
Ascertain how much of the rigolette will actually surround 
the face. Join your thread to the first point of this part of 
the edge ridge ; slip on a ball ; join to the next point but 
one ; slip on another ball ; continue so all round the face. 
Trim the other edge of the front (where it joins to the back) 
with loops, having four balls on each. Then trim the back, 
with loops of five balls each, carrying them down in smaller 
lop] a a little way along each side of the front. 

Small ornamental buttons, with an elastic between, may be 
used t<> fasten this head-dress beneath the chin; or white 
sarsenet strings may he added. 

The prettiest colors for this purpose are cerise ami white; 
pink, crimson, <>r blue, with white ; or blue ami maize, if the 
shade be pretty. Those who are fond of those charming 



KNITTED "WINTER BASQUE FOR A CHILD. 



141 



shades usually called Quaker colors, will find any stone, drab, 
or fawn, with white, extremely pretty and becoming. 

Knitted "Winter Basque 
for a Child. — Materials. — 
Four-thread white and eight- 
thread colored Berlin wool. 
No. 10 ivory needles and 
No. 18 steel do. 

The first part to be done 
is the frilled trimming round 
the lower part of the basque. 
With the bone needles, east 
on sixteen stitches *. Knit 
one row, purl one, knit one, 
purl one; join on the colored 
wool. Knit two rows. 

3d Row— K 1, X m 1, k 
2 t, X to the end. 

4th Roio. — Knit *. Join on 
the white wool ; and repeat 
between the stars forty times, 
ending with four extra white 
rows. Now take up the 
edges of all this stripe on one side, making one hundred and 
twelve stitches. Join on the colored wool and knit the row. 
Two white-stitch edges must be knitted together to reduce 
to one hundred and twelve ; and this first row must be knit- 
ted with the right side of the work to you. Knit another row. 
Then one of open-hem, as in the frill. Then one plain row. 
Join on the white, and knit in diamond honeycomb-stitch 
(see instructions) fully four inches deep. One front is then 
worked, and requires thirty stitches ; do nine diamonds, 
which brings it to the shoulder. Then decrease two stitches 
in every alternate row at that edge nearest the back until 




142 SLEEVE — HOOD TRIMMING FOK HOOD. 

fourteen stitches only are left. Cast off. The other front is 
done to correspond, leaving sixty-two stitches for the back. 

Back. — Join on your thread and cast off the first six 
stitches ; knit the remaining fifty-six, of course, in diamond 
honeycomb ; in the next needle, cast off six again. These 
straight pieces go under the arm. Knit the back to match 
the fronts, only cast off two at the beginning of each needle, 
when you get to the shoulder, for several rows ; then every 
alternate row only ; so that thirty-six may be left to cast off, 
when the same depth is done as on the fronts. Take up the 
edge stitches down the fronts and along the outer edge of 
the frill. With the right side of the work towards you, knit 
one row with the colored wool, doing two edge stitches as 
one, down the sides. Do another ; then the open-hem ; then 
another ; and cast off loosely. 

Sleeve. — Do a frill, like that trimming the body, but 12 
stitches wide only, and 9 perfect patterns. Cast off. Take 
up the edge-stitches. (Colored wool.) Do 2 plain rows, the 
open-hem, another row, and cast off loosely. This is the 
lowest edge of the sleeve. Take up the stitches at the other 
edge. Join on the colored wool, and do 2 rows plain knit- 
ting, having 30 stitches. Take the fine needles, and white 
wool, and do 8 rows, 4 knitted and the 4 alternate purled. 
Join on the colored wool, and with the large needles, do 1 
plain row. With the white wool, purl one row, making a 
stitch after every stitch ; then 5£ inches diamond honey- 
comb, complete the sleeve. 

Hood. — White wool. Begin on 12 stitches. Work in 
the same stitch as the rest, increasing one stitch at the end 
of every row, until 34 rows are seen at the back. Do 2 plain 
colored, and 2 plain white rows, and cast off, knitting 2 
together along the centre 3G stitches, and knitting very 
tightly, to make that part full. 

Tuimming fob Hood. — A similar frill to that of the 



NETTED MITTENS IN MALTESE LACE. 143 

sleeves and body, on eight stitches only. Twenty-two patterns 
will suffice. Treat one edge as before, and cast off loosely. 
The inner edge the same, but take 2 white stitches as one ; 
do open-hem, 1 row after ; and cast off very tightly, especially 
in the centre. Put this trimming round the sloping sides 
of the hood, so that half the width goes beyond it. Sew it 
round, as neatly and invisibly as possible. Join up the 
sleeves, and sew them in, with white wool ; and with the 
same, crochet together the body and hood, in single crochet, 
making the fullness fall in the neck. A crochet trimming is 
added round all the frills, thus : white wool, sc in a hole of 
the open-hem ; X 3 ch, very loosely ; sc in next hole. 
X repeat all round every frill. A small woollen cord, with 
tassels of wool to match, may easily be made, to fasten it at 
the throat, the cord being run in and out, beneath the hood. 
A coarse bone hook should be used for the crochet. 

By increasing every part in due proportion, a larger 
basque may easily be made, from these instructions. Eight 
stitches extra in each sleeve require 32 in the body, and 8 
in the hood ; depth of every part increased ; and 4 stitches 
more for each frill. 

Netted Mittens, in Maltese Lace. — Materials. — 
Very fine black netting silk, No. 14 mesh, with a flat 
one, one-quarter of an inch wide, and No. 11 round 
mesh. 

Make a foundation of 46 stitches, 40 being for the hand, 
and 6 for the thumb. Work 3 rounds, with No. 14 needle. 
Now with No. 11 do 2 stitches in every stitch. Take the 
fine mesh, and do a round, treating every 2 stitches as one, 
and taking them together. Two more fine rounds, and then 
one with the flat mesh, after which, with the fine mesh, work 
the stitches as in No. 7 edging. The hand is done in plain net- 
ting with the fine mesh, increasing only for the thumb. This 
is done by netting 2 in the first and last of the 6. Three" plain 



144 IMITATION HONITON LACE. 

rounds ; then increase on first and last of 8. Three more 
rounds ; increase on the first and last of 10 ; and so on, when 
half way up the thumb, increase somewhat oftener. On 
coming to the division of the thumb from the hand, it will 
be necessary to take up the thumb-stitches, and add six more 
on a foundation. Net round and round, about an inch, 
gradually decreasing the six extra stitches. Do a round with 
No. 11 mesh, like that already done, and 2 fine rounds. 
Finish with the narrow shell edging. Resume the hand, 
taking up the 6 stitches. Net round and round, gradually 
taking these in. Do the length you require, and if you wish 
half fingers, take one-fourth of the stitches, and 2 extra on a 
foundation, for the fore-finger, observing the rules as to its 
position with regard to the thumb given in the ' Knitted 
Mitt.' Each other finger must be done the same, and 
finished with a line of double-stitches, like the thumb. But 
for the little finger, you do not make any extra, but only 
take up those of the third. If no fingers are put, do the 
double round, and fine ones after, round the knuckles, and 
in cither case, finish with the narrow shell edging. Round 
the wrist do the broad edging, No. 6, and run an elastic 
through the open round. Darn the back, in three lines, 
meeting at the wrist, in any simple pattern. 

Imitation IIontton Lace. — Twelve patterns, with section 
of a completed collar. 

I do not advise any one to select this for their first essay 
in crochet ; it requires some skill to work, at all, with very 
fine cotton, such as alone is suitable for this purpose. But 
aftei a little praotioe with coarser materials, the worker will 
timl no insurmountable difficulty in any of these patterns, 
especially as the number of chain-stitches is generally indi- 
cated. Among the 12 patterns will be found 4 borders and 
s sprigs; and :ill have been taken from some of the choicest 
npeoimens of Honiton. Nos. 1 and 4 arc for veils or sleeves, 




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*.» "I SS Hi ,»„ ii sS 55 in illf sf !!■' ™ iibib = mm 
liliil ..iiiiiilliAimilAiiiiBjillllllllli^llillllialmiiiliiiUilllllll 



IMITATION nONTTON LACE. 145 

5 for collars only, 12 for any article whatever.. A few gene- 
ral directions will suffice for this sort of work. 

Sprig 1. — Begin at a with a chain of 60. Slip tack on one 
stitch, sc on onother, sdc on a third, 1 dc on the fourth, 
* 5 ch, miss 5, 1 dc. * all the length, hut close as you hegan. 
Work up on the other side of the original chain in the s&jie 
way, but the dc stitch must fall on the middle (or third) of 
every five. Do 3 in 1 at the point, and then on the other 
side the same. This makes your centre. Work round it the 
pointed scallops, from sc to long tc (see Crochet instruc- 
tions), diminishing each scallop suddenly, and adding 5 in 
the stitch at the extreme point, and 3 in 1 on each side of it. 
The stem 16 ch. Then comes a little loop on one side, of 16. 
You close this into a round, and work on it in sc. Where 
the line happens to be thicker, it shows you must do it in dc 
or tc, according to the depth. Continue the stem as many 
chain as are mentioned, then the next flower with five petals. 
The stem of this flower has no figures to mark the number 
of chain, but a similar one, on the opposite side, has ; and 
and this is intended as the guide. Each petal, also, has 8 
chain, on which you work, miss 1, 5 dc, 1 sdc, 1 sc. Con- 
tinue in this way up one side of the spray, and down the 
other, doing each flower perfectly as you come to it, and sc 
stitches on the chain of the stem itself when going down ag a v;„ 

The border No. 5 (see Plate I., Fig. 3) is worked by mak- 
ing a chain in the entire length, allowing seventeen stitches 
for each pattern, and two over. Work back, x 2 sc, 3 ch, 
1 dc, 3 ch, 1 tc, 3 ch, 1 dc, 3 ch, x do this throughout the 
length. Now on the original chain do * 2 sc on 2, 1 sdc, 2 
dc, 1 sdc, 2 dc, 1 stc, 7 tc, 1 stc, 2 dc, 1 sdc, *. Do this on 
each pattern. Work on the other side, with 2 sdc, 11 dc, 2 
slip on 2 sc, 2 sdc ; make the little spray after the fifth of 
every 11 dc. 

The sixth spray is, in fact, three perfect ones, and may be 

7 



146 CORAL PATTERN GOTPTTRE SLEEVE. 

used as such. This is the way, also, in "which it should 
be -worked. The flowers seen in 8, 9, and 11 having been 
already worked in other combinations, the number of founda- 
tion-stitches is not given. The border No. 12 has each flower 
"worked separately but the second, and each successive one 
is united to the last in the outer round of the scallop, where 
the two flowers are seen just to touch. Worked entirely 
separately, this flower also makes a very pretty sprig. 

Tou will observe that whenever a doubt can be supposed 
to arise as to the place where the work is to be begun, the 
letter a indicates it. 

No. 50, 70, or even 100 Boar's Head Crochet Cotton, with 
hook No. 24, should be used for this work. (Plate I., Fig. 4.) 

In the third engraving is a section of a completed collar. 
In reference to it, I may say that I should prefer the large 
flowers for the outer row, but that the arrangement, as it 
stands, was in a very beautiful real Honiton collar. The 
English rosettes are done in No. 50 cotton. 

Guipure Embroidery for Children's Pantalettes, etc. 
— (See Plate II., Fig. 2.) Materials. — Fine but close jaco- 
net, with the Royal Embroidery Cotton, No. 24, and Boar's 
Head Crochet Cotton, Nos. 16 and 50, of Messrs. Walter 
Evans & Co. 

I have selected this pattern for illustration, as it is both 
strong and very effective. The bars are to be done in the 
Boar's Head Cotton, No. 16. Every part of the design is done 
in buttonhole-stitch, and the graduated scallops and Chinese 
eyelet-holes are to be considerably raised. There is hardly 
any purpose to which muslin-work of this width might be 
applied for which this design would not be both handsome 
and appropriate. The rosettes are in No. 50 cotton. 

Coral Pattern Guipure Sleeve. — (Plate III. Fig. 2.)-- 
The materials arc NTansook muslin, guipure net, and Evans' 
Royal Embroidery Cotton, Nos. 20 and 30. 



STRIPEL) CROCHET TIDY OR LOUNGE COVER. 14? 

The engraving gives the centre of the sleeve, the coral 
branches turning in opposite directions. Each half should 
be copied from the spray nearest to it. The ground is gui- 
pure net. Trace the design with a double thread, carefully 
taking u-p the net whenever it is possible. Do the outlines 
in a narrow line of buttonhole, with No. 30 cotton. The rose 
buttonhole of the scallops and wheels is in No. 20 cotton. 

Patent Applique Slippers. — (See Plate II. Fig. 5.) — Scar- 
let and black applique cloth, and maize Russia braid, in which 
the outlines' are simply braided. They may be obtained in 
many other combinations of color and varieties of pattern. 

Doyley for a Fruit Dish, in Square Crochet. — (See 
Plate II., Fig. 3.) Materials. — No. 12, 14, or 16, Evans' 
Boar's Head Crochet Cotton, with a suitable hook. 

To be worked in square crochet, according to the instruc- 
tions already given ; and trimmed with a suitable crochet 
lace. 

This design would also look very handsome netted and 
darned. For this, No. 8 Boar's Head must be used for the 
netting, with No. 12 knitting cotton for darning. You begin 
as for square crochet, but with fifteen stitches, increasing at 
the end of every row until you have fifty-six holes up one 
side. Put a mark on that side, and cease to increase there ; 
but continue to do so on the other side, in every alternate 
row, until there are sixty-nine holes there, when you cease 
to increase. On the side there were fifty-six, there must now 
be fourteen holes made, which will be nearly done by this 
time. Then net two together at this end, which will be in 
'every other row ; and when there are fourteen holes at the 
other corner, begin to decrease these also, until you end with 
fourteen holes only, fifteen stitches. Add a netted lace ail 
round, and darn according to the engraving. 

Striped Crochet Tidy, or Lounge Cover. — (See Plate 
II., Fig. 1 .) Materials. — No. 10 Evans' Boar's Head Crochet 



148 GLOUCESTER POINT COLLAR. 

Cotton ; No. 4 do. for fringe. Turquoise Blue Beads, No. 
2. Worked lengthwise. 

The narrow stripes are done in sc, with the design formed 
in beads, the broad in square crochet. Make a chain the 
required length, divisible by 78, with 1 over. Do the narrow 
stripe, every pattern of which requires twenty stitches. On 
this work the broad stripe, reversing the work, the open 
crochet being done on the wrong side of the bead crochet, 
and again turning for the next narrow stripe. Do any width 
you please, always ending with a narrow stripe. One row 
of dc and one of square crochet at each end, with fringe, will 
complete it. Or a narrow bead border may be worked at 
each end. 

Gloucester Point Collar. — (See Plate III., Fig. 1.) 
Materials. — The Point Lace Cottons of Messrs. Walter 
Evans & Co. 

The engraving represents a section of the collar, on the 
scale of the original, which was worked in the hope that I 
might be able to present it to the late venerated and beloved 
Princess, the Duchess of Gloucester, the only surviving aunt 
of Queen Victoria, little dreaming that ere it could be com- 
pleted the last daughter of George III. would have joined 
her parents in the tomb. I will not venture to say that my 
handiwork would have been worthy of the acceptance of 
that excellent lady, but as in the opinion of judges it was so, 
I think it may be of some interest to other workers. It is 
done in Spanish Point, but very slightly raised in parts. The 
flower of England, the rose, with branches of forget-me-nots, 
forming the design. Being of such delicate texture, the out- 
lines :ire done with No. 7, instead of No. 1, Mecklenburg. 
The roses are variously filled in, the centre one, as seen in 
the engraving; the other two in pairs, somewhat differently. 
A double line of Moravian is laid in as a foundation lor the 
Raleigh dotted edge of the roses and buds, and a treble lino 



APPLIQUE SMOKING CAP. 149 

for the outline of the collar, on which the scallop is worked. 
By looking at the illustrations of the Point-stitches, you will 
see what are appropriate for the remainder of the collar. 

Embroidered Cuff. — (See Plate I., Fig. 5.) Materials. 
— Narrow lace insertion, Nansook muslin, and Evans' Em- 
broidery Cotton, No. 36. 

I give this as a sample of an extremely pretty and effec- 
tive, but uncommon sort of work, in which very narrow lace 
insertion is used to spare the labor of lines of open-hem. 
The lace is not more than one-fifth of an inch wide, and is 
laid on over the muslin whenever double parallel lines are seen 
in the engraving. This lace is attached to the muslin by 
neat narrow buttonhole. It is cut away from those parts 
which are embroidered, and the rose buttonhole-stitch, of 
the flowers, will effectually secure the ends. Between every 
two rows of lace is one of eyelet-holes, which are neatly 
sewed over. The border may be done as seen in the engra- 
ving, or, if preferred, this part may be omitted, and a neat 
narrow lace edging sewed on. The engraving represents the 
cuff diminished about onedialf. 

Medallion Pattern Sleeve. — (See Plate IV., Fig. 1.) — 
The material for this handsome sleeve is Nansook muslin, 
with the Royal Embroidery Cotton, No. 30 and 40, 5f Walter 
Evans & Co. 

This pattern will be excellent practice for those who 
desire to try satin-stitch, without having a very elaborate 
piece of work ; as every flower in the medallion is worked 
in this manner, with No. 40 cotton. All the remainder of 
the design is in buttonhole-stitch, even or graduated, except 
the eyelet-holes, which are neatly sewed over. The fine 
cross-barred parts of the engraving have the muslin left as a 
ground, but it is cut away from beneath the guipure bars. 

Applique Smoking Cap. — (See Plate II., Fig. 4.) — Ihe 
materials for such a cap as this should be purchased ready 



]50 BRAIDED DINNER MAT GUIPURE COLLAR. 

prepai ed and begun from a store ; and all the necessary ma 
terials for completion, including the tassel, must be obtained 
at the same time. The original of this is in rich black velvet 
with the serpentine part in crimson satin. Two different, 
soutache cover the join of the two materials, above- and 
below ; and the waved hue is of black velvet edged with 
gold, and with black cut beads along the centre. The 
scrolls are in gold braid, and Albert ditto. The tassel is in 
black and blue silk, and gold fringe, with passementerie 
button. 

Lamp Mat in Berlin-work. — (See Plate IV., Fig 3.) 
Materials. — Black and chalk white beads, No. 2, bright 
green, and scarlet Berlin wool. 

The white beads in this pattern are indicated in the engra- 
ving by white squares; and the black by black squares. These 
should be done first. The squares which have a line down 
them are to be worked in scarlet wool, in cross-stitch ; the 
remainder in green. The border is in O. P. beads. Any 
other, and richer one may be substituted for it. 

Braided Dinner Mat. — (See Plate III., Fig. 3.) — An 
entire set ought to be worked, on fine cloth in broad and 
narrow, or plain Russia and alliance braids, of suitable colors. 
These mats should bo lined with stout mill-board, covered 
with silk on one side. A silk cord should finish the edges. 

Guipure Collar. — (See Plate V., Fig. 1.) Materials — 
Jaconet muslin, narrow Eugenie tape, with Evans' Mechien- 
burg Thread, No. 80, and Royal Embroidery Cotton, T\ T o. 24. 

The entire collar may readily be drawn from the section 
in tlio engraving, which is given of the full size. About 
eight scallops, will be required for an ordinary collar. The 

scrolls arc formed of Eugenie braid, laid on the muslin. 
After the bars are done, its edges are closely buttonholed. 
The rest, of the pattern is overcast, including the scalloped 
border. The Raleigh bars arc done with the Mecklenburg 



TIDY FOR A PRIE-DIEU CHAIR. 151 

thread; but every other part with embroidery cotton. 
When completed the muslin is cut away from under all the 
bars. 

Maltese Lace Sleeve. — (See Plate IV., Fig. 4.) — This 
is an excellent imitation of Maltese lace, done with linen 
braid, and No. 80 Mechlenburg thread. 

Take a bit of Maltese lace of any design you please, and 
draw the pattern on the green side of a strip of toile ciree. 
Braid the broad lines with linen tape of the same width (or 
perhaps the design requires that two different widths be 
used). Then connect the various parts with English and 
Alencon bars ; working a rosette, or a few spots of English 
lace, here and there, and finishing the outer line with Sor- 
rento, or Venetian edging. 

Tidy for a Prie-dieu Chair. — (See Plate V., Fig. 4.) — 
Thjs is intended to fit the chair, and may be done in either 
netting or crochet. The size of the mesh must depend on 
that of the chair for which it is intended ; but probably one 
as large as No. 7 will be wanted. In crochet it must be 
worked in Long square (see instructions). The materials 
are No. 4 Evans' Boar's Head Crochet Cotton ; with No. 4 
Knitting for darning, if netted. A piece ought to be 
worked for the top, and a strip for the back, so that the up- 
per part should form a sort of bag, to fit that part of the chair. 

Complicated as the shape is, it is by no means difficult to 
make it in netting. Crochet, of course, presents no diffi- 
culty. Begin at the left-hand corner in one stitch, and work 
as for square netting, until there are twenty holes on one 
side. Put a bit of colored thread in to mark this side. The 
next time you come to it neither increase nor decrease. But 
after this net two together here, while in the other row you 
continue to increase, until there are 12 holes so formed. 
Now increase at the end of every row until you have, along 
the straight side, as many holes as at the top except one- 



152 



FOOT OTTOMAN IX BERLIN-WORK. 



Then begin to decrease there, till ten holes are done, when 
you complete this wide part by doing the little three-cor- 
nered bit cut off by the diagonal line seen across the engra- 
ving, which is done by working so many stitches only, and 
decreasing at the end of every row. Resume the long part, 
increasing on the row ending at the long side, and decreasing 
at the other, till the entire long side is done, when omit the 
increase in one row, and then decrease every row until it is 
finished. Darn, and add a fringe of crochet cotton. 

Modern Point Lace Collar. — (See Plate V., Fig. 2.) — 
The materials are No. 1 French white cotton braid, and the 
Point Lace cottons. 

The section given of the centre of the collar, is the full 
sizes, and the rest should be drawn from it. The scrolls may 
be variously filled up ; but all the ground-work is done as 
seen in various sections of the centre scallop. 




Fool' Ottoman .\ BerIiIn-woiuc— ] give this repre 
sentfd as made up, to convey an idea of t he manner hi wind 



CttOCHET OVER-SHOE. 



153 



it should be done. The stripes are alternately in velvet and 
in Berlin-work, done on border canvas, in a medallion, or 
other suitable design. The original of this had the medal- 
lions in amber beads of various shades, and the small bor- 
der in the same. The ground in rich green Berlin, and the 
centres of the medallions in dark claret, to match the velvet 
which composes the alternate stripes. For a footstool, the 
worked stripes ought not to be more than five inches wide. 
But the same style, on a larger scale, is equally adapted for 
chairs and lounging ottomans. 



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Crochet and Bead Boeder. — A neat narrow border for 
a tidy, which can be done in crochet bead-work, is so often 
needed — the engravings rarely giving such borders suffi- 
ciently distinctly to be worked from — that I add this espe- 
cially for that purpose. It may be used for many other pur- 
poses, and would, of itself, make a very pretty design for a 
tidy, worked in open square, and bead crochet alternately, in 
the manner already given. 

Crochet Over-shoe. — (See Plate IV., Fig. 5.) Materials. 
— 8 thread fleecy wool, a coarse crochet-hook, and knitting 
needles. Begin at the toe, with a chain of 15 or 17, accord- 
ing to the size of the foot, and work in ribbed crochet, doing 
8 stitches in the centre stitch of every alternate row, until 
pou come to the rise of the instep ; then do 5 in 1, for seve- 



154 DESIGN FOR DARNED VANDYKE NETTING. 

ral times. When the whole front of the boot is done, work 
from the centre, on one side, making a few chain at the mid- 
dle to increase the height of the hoot round the ankle. Do 
enough to go round the hack of the foot to the front again, 
and crochet it up. In the other foot he careful that this join 
comes on the reverse side. Knit in garter-stitch a piece one 
and a half inches wide, and work on it a fur trimming. (See 
Fur trimming in Knitting instructions.) Sew it round 
the ankle, without contracting it ; and add cork soles lined 
with silk, or with an inside sole of sc. 

Carriage Bag, in Berlin-work.— (Plate V., Fig. 3.) 
Materials. — Black and chalk white heads, Ko. 1 or 2. Scar- 
let and rich green wool. Canvas suitable to the beads. (See 
Canvas) Green silk cord and skeleton frame. 

The pat t Lin is in stripes ; green ground, with white beads, 
had scarlet ground with black beads. The small stars which 
divide the stripes are done alternately in each kind of bead. 
By a slight error in the engraving, they are not made, as 
they ought to be, to touch. It must be remembered that 
all these bags are made of one piece of canvas, long enough 
to cover both sides of the frame. 

Invalid's What-not. — (Sec Plate VI., Fig. '_'.) — Is made 
of satin, silk, or cloth, braided or embroidered. The founda- 
tion is card-board, covered with the material, and lined with 
silk. Tt must be worked on the right side. The three 
pockets are braided or embroidered. The upper one, which 
should have the initials in the centre, is divided into three 
parts, by lines of stitching. It will hold the Match, chain, 
and other notions, while the lower ones are very convenient 
for the handkerchief, Cologne bottle, and suoh trifles as it is 
convenient i<>r an invalid to have aboul her. Each pooket, 
•is well as the frame, is trimmed with quilled ribbon. 

l>i 1 1 . n fob Darned Vandyke Netting. — Having already 
given lull instructions lor Vandyke netting and darning, 1 



APPLIQUE TOILET CUSHION. 



1 55 




need add nothing here on the subject. It may, of course, 
be done in any degree of fineness. 

The pattern is equally appropriate for square crochet, the 
points being made according to the rules given for decreas- 
ing or sloping the edges of crochet designs. It may be 
applied, also, for darning on filet, for baskets, and other pur- 
poses. 

Medallion Insertion in Muslin Embroidery. — (See 
Plate VI., Fig. 5.) — The same materials and mode of work- 
ing as the medallion pattern sleeve, which it is intended to 
match. Such a design is, indeed, required for the band of a 
Manche Duchesse, the form in which such sleeves are usually 
worn ; I mean a sleeve with a deep worked frill, foiling over 
the hand, set in a worked band, below a plain full muslin 
sleeve. 

Braided Slipper. — (Plate VI., Fig. 4.) — The material is 
cloth or velvet, on which the design is marked, and a piece 
of soutache of any color that will harmonize. One piece of 
soutache should suffice for a pair of slippers. It ought not 
to be too broad. 

Appltque Toilet Cushion. — (See Plate VI., Fig. 3.) — The 
materials for this cushion are an oblong piece of dark blue 
cloth, on which the design is applique in scarlet. Black 
Albert braid, gold braid, gold thread, No. 3. Passemen- 
terie trimmings. 



156 



INEANT'S EMBROIDEKED SHOE. 



This cushion is to be suspended from the wall. The back 
is of straight card-board, covered with silk. The other side 
is stuffed, and considerably raised in the centre. The out- 
lines of the pattern are in gold braid ; the parts indicated by 
black lines are Albert braid, outlined with gold thread. The 
cloth being sewed over the cushion, is finished with fancy 
cord, and the tassels are added. 

Handsome Mat in O. P. Beadwoek. — (Plate VII. Fig. 1.) 
— The colors used for -this mat are given below, and the 
strength of the cotton employed in making it being very 
essential, Evans' Beading Cotton, No. 00, will be the best. 
Begin it down the centre, according to the instructions, and 
finish off the ends neatly and securely. A handsome bead 
fringe, or other trimming, must be added, to complete it. 

Dark Purple, ffl Light Purple. g§ Medium Purple. □ Bright Green. H Darker 
Green, ffl Pale Amber, g Darker Amber. □ Clear White, d Opal g2 Claret. 
B Ruby. g| Dark Amber. 




Imwxt's EMiutomERED Shoe. — Materials. Fine white 
cashmere, and ombr6 orimson silk. It maybe made up with 
cnik soles. The shoe is composed of two pieces; the front, 
and (li«' hack, which latter forms almost a hoot, huttoning 

close on the ankle. A simple pattern is marked on the front, 
and worked in embroidery, the centre of the leaves being 



SUSPENSION FLOWER VASE— VASE MAT. 



157 



composed of French knots. A double border of fancy -her- 
vingbone-stitch is worked all round, and also trims the edges 
^f the back. These both should be lined with quilted silk, 
neatly piped, and sewed on cork soles, which are previously 
lined and bound with ribbon. 

Suspension Flower Yase. — A wire 
frame. O. P. Beads, and Evans' Bead- 
ing Cotton, No. 000, are required. 
The beads will look best if the fringes 
are of graduated colors. The frame 
is of three rounds. The smallest is 
filled in, to make it strong and firm. 
The three are then connected by lines 
of beads crossing each other. (See 
Wire-work.) Then a bead tassel is 
attached to the centre of the lowest, 
and bead fringes to the edges of the 
others. The chains for suspending it 
must also be of beads. 

Vase Mat.— (See Plate VI., Fig. 1.) 
— To be worked on canvas with beads 
and wool. Alabaster, coral, and violet 
beads, emerald green wool. A reference to the engraving 
will show the arrangement of the colors. The centre orna- 
ment, an elongated cross, is done in coral beads; and the 
same form the outer edge and fringe. The principal pattern 
is in alabaster beads, the corner ornaments hi violets, with a 
white bead in the middle of each square and the entire 
ground in green wool. The fringe-border may be omitted, 
and an O. P., or any wide fancy border, added. 

Patchwork Design. — This woidd serve also for a Berlin 
pattern, for a sofa cushion, or many other purposes. The 
outlines are done entirely in black wool, and the figures filled 
in with various colors, according to taste. The crosses should 




158 



DESIGN FOR SUSPENDERS. 




be dark and the stars light ; or the arrangement may be 
reversed. The same, if employed for patchwork. The direc- 
tion of the lines shows the right way of the silk or velvet, 
which is of much importance in producing a good affect hi 
patchwork. 

Djbsigh I'ni; Suspenders, on silk canvas with floss silks. 
— (Plate VlLl., Fig. 2.) — Three shades of yellowish green 
are required for the leaves, two shades of olive for the acorn 
nip, ami a dead green (not yellow) i'<>r the acorn. Tua same 



PICCOLOMINI COLLAR AND CUFF. 150 

color for the leaf in the squirrel's mouth. Three shades of re<l 
brown (the natural color of the animal) for the squirrel, but the 
eye is composed of four stitches, one white and three dark 
brown. The colors of the border are shown by the type, which 
corresponds with that of the acorn cup, and lightest leaf green. 



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Book-mark. — Motto, " Praise ye the Lord." Perforated 
cards, suitable for working this and similar mottoes, devo- 
tional or friendly, may be purchased at a very moderate cost. 
The letters and border are then worked, with China silk of 
various colors, in cross or tent-stitch. Seed beads, also, 
look very pretty for this purpose. 

Collar and Cuff in Broderie a. la Point de Poste. 
(Plate VII., Fig. 2). — The materials are jaconet muslin and 
the royal perfectionnee embroidery cotton No. 18, of Messrs. 
"Walter Evans & Co., of Derby, England. 

The small branching fibres of the sprays in this design are 
done d la poste, the flowers have the holes pierced and sewed 
over, and the border is in scallops d la rose, and considerably 
raised. One half the cuff and a considerable section of the 
full sized collar are given, from which the whole can readily 
be drawn. This sort of embroidery is particularly adapted 
to the morning toilette. 

Piccolomini Collar and Cuff. — (Plate VII., Fig. 3.) — 
Materials. — Fine jaconet muslin and the royal perfectionnea 



160 BORDER FOR A TABLE-COVER. 

embroidery cotton Nos. 14 and 24, of Messrs. "Walter Evans 
& Co., of Derby, England. 

Exactly one half the collar drawn of the full size is given 
in the engraving, and somewhat more than half the cuff, the 
centre of the rod being the middle, at least for an ordinary 
hand. By some oversight of the engraver, this rose is not 
veined in the petals, as it ought to be, but the worker can 
easily supply the deficiency by carrying a line up the centre 
of each and sewing it over. 

After tacking the muslin on the toile ciree, work with the 
coarse cotton the bars which form the ground. Take first 
one long line down the depth of the collar and nearest the 
end. In overcasting it, do each short bar on the one side of 
it as it comes. Then do each successive long bar, with the 
short ones belonging to that side of it which comes nearest 
the last. When all the bars are done, outline with a double 
line and buttonhole the edges of the flowers and other parts 
of the design ; then the small scalloped border. Cut away 
the muslin from under the bars only, leaving the heavy pat- 
tern in jaconet on a light open ground. The bars are all 
done in 14, the rest of the work in 24 cotton. 

Spanish Point Sleeve, to correspond with the Gloucester 
Collar. — (Plate VIII., Fig. 1.) — The materials are, of course, 
precisely the same as those for the collar, the engraving 
being on a reduced scale. The depth is a suitable increase 
on that of the collar. On the side will be seen a diagram of 
tlte siiKi.i.-STiTCH mentioned under the head of muslin-work 
(page 83), which is employed with excellent effect in the 
roses of this design. 

Border fob a Tahi/e-covkr, in golden tapestry. — (Plate 
VHI., Fig. i.) — The materials are those mentioned under 
the head of Golden Tapestry : three shades of golden olive 
wool, with crochet silk to match the lightest, and with which 

it is crossed. The ground, deep claret, blue, or green, eight- 



TRIMMING IN TATTING 161 

thread Berlin. The canvas, of course, suitable. The design 
is from a natural spray of the wild convolvulus — the morning 
glory of America — a plant found commonly in the hedge-rows 
of England, the flower being a pure white. The three 
shades are shown in the engraving by the depth of tinting, 
the lightest being represented by white lines. The plain 
squares are the ground. A single line of each of these golden 
shades may form a border on both sides, if ii be thought 
desirable. 

Trimming in Tatting. — (Plate VIII., Fig. 3.) — Materials. 
— For fine work, Evans' Tatting Cotton, or Boar's Head 
Crochet Cotton, No. 16 ; for coarse work, No. 000, or 0000 
of their beading cotton. 

Like all Tatting with bars, a needle as well as a shuttle is 
required. 

Bar. — 5 double, picot on the shuttle thread, 6 double, 
picot on the needle thread, 5 double. 

1st Loop. — 5 double, join on the picot first made, 14 
double, picot, 5 double, draw it up. In every pattern but 
the first, you do instead of 14 double 7 double, join to the 
opposite picot, 7 double. 

Mar. — 5 double, picot on needle thread, 5 double. 

2d Loop. — 5 double, join to opposite picot of last loop, 14 
double, (or in after patterns 7, join, and 7,) picot, 5 double, 
draw it up. By repeating the last bar and loop any number 
of times, and doing the same on the opposite side, this pat- 
tern may be made of any desired depth. 

Mar. — 3 double. 

3c? Loop. — 5 double, join to the picot of the last loop, 14 
double, picot, 4 double. Draw it up. 

Bar. — 3 double. 

4:th Loop (at the point). — 4 double, join, 16 double, picot, 
4 double. Draw it up 

Mar. — 3 double. 



162 TRIMMING TS TATTING. 

5 th Loop. — Like the 3d. 

Bar. — 3 double. 

6th Loop. — 5 double, joii to the picot, 7 double, picot, 7 
double, picot, 5 double. Draw it up. 

Bar. — 5 double, pass the needle through the opposite 
picot, 5 double. 

'Hh Loop. — Like the 6th. 

Bar. — 5 double, pass the needle through the picot on the 
corresponding bar, 6 double, join on the picot at the side of 
the 7th loop, 5 double. This 5 double makes half the long 
bar seen between every two patterns. 

In the subsequent patterns, you join the first and second 
loops, at the point, to the seventh and sixth of the last. 

By omitting the loops 2 aud 6, and the bars belonging to 
them, you can reduce this pattern ; and it will be of a suit- 
able width for trimming chemise yokes, and many other 
articles of domestic use. 



MATERIALS 



Applique Cloth. — (See Applique instructions.) 

BEADS. 

There are various kinds of beads, the principal distinction 
being that some are made in glass and others in metal. In 
glass beads we have Bohemian, or O. P. ; Pound, Seed, and 
Fancy. 

Bohemian, or O. P. Beads, are the large ones used princi- 
pally for vases, baskets, mats and table-covers. They are 
from one-fourth to one-third of an inch long, and the common 
sorts have very rough and jagged edges. They are strong 
and large ; and when used for mats, trimmings, etc., are 
woven together, without any foundation of canvas, or any 
other material. There are two varieties : the clear or tran- 
sparent and those technically known as filled. These look as 
if they were painted on the inside ; and they are more ex- 
pensive than the others. Each bunch should be about nine 
mches long and have twelve strings of beads. The points to 
notice in purchasing them are — 1st. That there should be 
the proper number of strings and no admixture of beads on 
them (for it is by no means uncommon to find two or three 
sorts strung together) ; and 2d. That they appear tolerably 
regular in size. There are two or three sizes sold ; and, of 
course, a bunch of small beads will be shorter than one of 

163 



164 POUND BEADS. 

large, although the same quantity may be in each. What I 
do object to is, to finding various sizes in one bunch. The 
colors are three whites, clear, opal or milk-white, and filled ; 
three or four dark greens, and as many light, which latter are 
nearly always filled ; several shades of amber, three or four 
purples, sometimes one or two light blues ; lavender, drab or 
fawn, and pink, all filled; yellows, filled ; reds, from v garnet 
and ruby to pink, clear ; and shades of vermibon, filled ; 
black, and a few odd shades which sometimes can, and oftener 
cannot, be procured. I never have been able to learn the 
origin of the name O. P. given to these beads; but it is that 
by which they are commonly known. They are made in 
Bohemia. 

Pound Beads. — These are the smaller glass beads used 
for working on canvas, and forming the beautiful scrolls, 
flowers and other designs we so frequently see in soia- 
cushions, etc. There are three leading sizes: No. 1, the 
largest; No. 2, medium; and No. 3, which are not much 
larger than seed beads. For the last three years, these 
beads have been so much employed in England, that, ac- 
cording to the well-known maxim of political economy, that 
demand will create a supply, almost infinite varieties have 
been imported. This will, no doubt, be the case in America 
also, when their uses and value are better known. In Eng- 
land they are bought by the pound — hence their name of 
pound beads — a bunch weighing from one to three pounds. 
No. 3, however, is obtainable in smaller bunches. The colors 
that ought to be procurable are four whites, chalk, alabaster, 
opal, clear; three or four ruby, as many imperial and tur- 
quoise 1)1 ne, two or throe ohalk blue, hv • three coral; 

several similes of yellow and bronze, greys, fawns and dr:il>s, 

in great variety; emerald, yellow ami olive-green, three or 
{bur each, al least ; an equal number ol* I'ink ami puce, (or 
violel ;) a]- lie,, |, and other odd tints (I mean such as have 



SEED, FANCY AND BUGLE BEADS. 1G5 

Dnly one of the kind), and black — in short, such a variety, 
that any Berlin pattern can be worked in them without using 
any other material. 

Seed Beads are of the same kind, but very small, and a 
still greater variety of them are made. I have myself had 
upwards of three hundred shades of these tiny beads in my 
possession ; but even a sixth part of the number, well selected, 
would avail for almost any ordinary purpose. These and the 
pound beads are manufactured in Venice. 

Of Fancy Beads we have an infinite variety ; but there is 
a fashion in them, so that like other fashions, some disappear 
altogether after a brief popularity. Those which are intended 
to imitate gold, silver, steel, or bronze, will probably remain 
permanently among us. Those imitating coral, also, may 
continue fashionable. They are very brittle, being merely 
very thin glass, with wax colored with vermilion inside. 
The pretty sequins^ flat, round beads, so much used at one 
time for dresses, are now not to be procured at all, having, 
bike others, died a natural death and been replaced by newer, 
not prettier, styles. 

Bugles, although, strictly speaking, only fancy beads, are 
of sufficient importance to merit a paragraph to themselves. 
They are tubes of various circumference and length, in black, 
white, steel color, green, purple and red. The four last are 
comparatively rare. Black and white are common enough, 
but differ much in quality. Some are so badly sorted that 
you get several sizes in one packet ; the color of the white 
is also frequently bad, being of yellow, instead of bluish- 
white. Avoid purchasing them too fine, as many have the 
bore so slender that a bead-needle only can penetrate it; 
and the thread such a needle carries will not be strong 
enough for their weight. Short bugles are used in canvas- 
work, square crochet patterns being employed. The pattern 
is done in bugles, a bead to a stitch ; the ground is filoselle silk 



166 METAL BEADS — BERLIN PATTERNS. 

Metal Beads are gold, cut or round ; 
" Silver do. ; 

" Steel, and burnt or blue steel, cut. 

They are bought in small bunches of twelve strings each. 
The size is determined by the number, which is from 1 (the 
smallest) to 12 ; but from 4 to 8 or 9 only are generally pro- 
curable. The price also varies with the size, 10, 11 and 12 
being each dearer than the preceding, on a rapidly increasing 
scale. In general, the uncut (round) ones are superior in 
quality to the cut beads. 

Berlen' Patterns. — There is a great difference in the 
quality of these patterns, and some skill is required in select- 
ing such as are needed for your work. The sizes and prices 
are according to numbers, marked on every sheet, from No. 
to No. 20, or even higher. Many of the larger pieces are 
copies, more or less accurate, from the great masters of paint- 
ing, and some are beautifully executed. There is a lovely 
design of this class called " The Fishers," a boy fishing and 
a tiny girl, full of fun, leaning over his shoulder. The bright, 
childish faces, the trees, the rippling water, combine to form 
a charming subject. 

In purchasing patterns, take care that the canvas is suita- 
ble to them. By referring to the article on canvas, you will 
see the various sizes, and perceive that it would not do to 
choose a very large pattern for coarse canvas, while the pat- 
tern that would look rich and handsome in No. 20 canvas, 
would be a miserably huddled affair in No. 50. When a 
Berlin pattern has strongly contrasting shades and colors, or 
many small extraneous objects, such as straggling branches, 
tendrils, etc., it is not fit for working on a much larger scale ; 
but if painted in medium tints, and simple designs, the effect 
is nut injured. 

Patterns for railway canvas never ought to have moro 
than .si\t\ li\r stitches in the width. 



SILK, PLAIN" RUSSIAN AND ALLIANCE BRAIDS. 167 

O. P. Berlin Patterns may be known by the squares 
not being under each other, as in crochet and ordinary 
designs, but each square being half under one, half under 
mother. Also that they are oblong, not true squares. 



BRAIDS. 



Silk. — A great variety of silk braids is always procurable ; 
and novelties are constantly being made. The leading 
sorts are : 

Plain Russian Braid. — The term Russia is applied here 
to the plait of the silk forming the braid. There are two 
plaits commonly used, the Russian and the French. The 
French is that in which hair is usually woven, in a number oi 
strands, each one of which is passed alternately over and under 
the others. For some reason, French silk braid never looks 
very glossy ; and, indeed, it is rarely to be obtained. The 
Russian is that plaited in what, in hair, is termed the Grecian 
plait, the outer strand from each side being taken alternately 
and folded over to the middle. In this, as in almost every 
other article, there is a great difference of quality. Good 
braid should look close, and feel firm. The edges should be 
even, and the texture glossy. Again, there is a vast varia- 
tion in quantity. Some pieces have eighteen yards, or there- 
abouts ; others, not more than nine or ten. The price of a 
knot is, therefore, no test of its cheapness, even as to quan- 
tity ; and I may remark that the best braid always contains 
the longest lengths in the knot. 

Alliance Braid is a variety of Russian, but one half is of 
one color, one half of another. Almost all have one half oi 
maize, or some shade of yellow, the other being blue, 



168 GOLD, SILVER AND COTTON BRAIDS. 

green, cerise, crimson, or scarlet. (See Braiding Instruc 
tio?is.) 

Star Braid is plaited so that the edges are serrated. It 
is more expensive than Russian, hut very pretty and durable. 

Eugenie Braid is crimped ; or, at least, it looks as if it 
Were so. It is not, therefore, very firm ; but pretty for some 
purposes, and not expensive. 

Sardinian Braid is a fancy article, woven in three colors ; 
more fantastic, I think, than pretty. 

Albert Braid is, in fact, a fine round cord, classed 
among the braids, because used for the same purpose. It is 
very effective for many purposes, especially when two con- 
trasting colors are laid side by side, as orange and blue, on 
black cloth. It is sewed over, not through. 

Broad Silk Braids, if really good and well made, are 
very beautiful for braiding aprons. They are, however, 
somewhat expensive, and not always obtainable. 

Soutache. — This is, properly, the ordinary French name 
for braid ; but in English books on needlework, is applied 
especially to fancy Parisian braids, of every pattern and com- 
bination of colors and materials. These soutaches are sold 
in pieces of about thirteen yards each. 

Gold and Silver Bkaid. — These are, of course, not made 
by any means of pure metal ; but they look very rich and 
handsome for many sorts of braiding. The French plait is 
always preferable to the Russian for metal braids ; and the 
Parisian, of the best quality, is much more durable than any 
other, as well as more easily worked. It is made in various 
widths. 

Cotton Braids. French White Cotton. — If good — fine, 

even, and closely woven, in French plait. Sold in small 

knots, or packets containing twelve. The width is deter- 
mined by the anmber, from 1 • (very narrow) to 14. Used 
especially for modern point, or laoet-work. 










]9tCK & I'lTlKEllLl. HW^QilK, 



BOURDON BULLION — CANNETILLE. ICO 

Russia Cotton. — A thick cotton braid, in Russian plait ; 
employed chiefly for children's white dresses. 

Waved Braid. — A braid, in various widths, scalloped or 
waved at both edges. 

Eugenie Tape, or Braid, is a thick, firm, waved braid. 

Linen Braids are useful for some purposes, but the plait 
wants firmness, for which reason they are not so good as the 
cotton for fancy-work, except for imitation Maltese laee. 

Cotton Alliance Braid is cotton in half the width, and 
colored worsted in the other. It is used for braiding anti- 
macassars, and other household articles, and for such pur- 
poses is very pretty. 

Worsted Braid is of various widths. The narrow is 
always Russian. It washes well. 

Mohair Braid is a fine, French silk braid, used for 
making watch-guards, in imitation of hah*, and is always of 
some shade nearly resembling it. 



Bourdon. — A Parisian cord, so covered with gold or sil- 
ver tissue as to resemble it. It is used in crochet, silks of 
various colors being worked over it, so that the bourdon is 
seen glittering between the stitches ; it has, of course, a most 
brilliant appearance. Baskets, reticules, and many articles 
are made with bourdon for a foundation, as it is strong and 
firm ; but it tarnishes very easily. Sold by the yard. 

Bullion. — Used in gold embroidery. It is a very fine 
tubing of gold, or rather of gilt wire, bright or dead.. When 
used, it is cut in short lengths, and the needle rim through 
them. It is of two qualities, fine and ordinary. Sold by the 
ounce. 

Cannettlle. — A very fine wire, covered with white or 
green cotton, used for crochet flowers. 



8 



] 70 FBESTH. ENGLISH A2TD GEEMAX CA2TTAS. 



CANVAS. 

Fee5"ch Cotton Castas. — This is the kind generally im- 
ported by the leading Berlin houses, and is used where the 
ground as well as the space for the pattern is intended to be 
covered. It is of two kinds : that in which the threads are 
at equal distances, which is called common canvas : and the 
sort termed Penelope, having the threads in pairs, just as it 
would have were a piece of work in cross-stitch to be picked 
out often, as we are told was done by the mother of Tele- 
machus. Hence, no doubt, the name by which this canvas 
is known. For all work in cross-stitch, this will be found 
easier for the eyes than the other ; but it cannot be employed 
for tent, tapestry, or any fancy-stitch, excepting where beads 
only are used. French canvas is made of various widths. 
The narrow ones, termed border canvas, vary from seven to 
eighteen inches. The ordinary width is twenty-six inches; 
and it may be obtained of nearly two yards wide. Its fine- 
: - - is determined by the number of threads to the inch , 
and the various sizes are distinguished by numbers. I sul^ 
join a scale of the leading varie:: 

. . I i u y u u u ii u u u a u, a 

Sttfck* M nek. J j 6 7 I » 10 II 12 13 14 15 1«J IT 

This scale applies equally to both kinds of canvas. 

English Castas is an imitation of French, but very in- 
ferior, and numbered from Xo. 20 (extremely coarse) to Xo. 

max Castas has every tenth thread of a different 

color fron. This is soi: e to the eye; but 

the ca : bo inferior a quality, the warj. and the woof 

Does, that it should never be chosen 

lor any elaborate work. Avoid it especially for wreaths and 



MOSAIC A2TD JAVA CASTAS TO SELECT CANVAS. 171 

figure pieces, -which it will inevitably distort into all sorts of 
unnatural forms. 

Sitk Castas is generally either white or black. It is used 
for designs that do not require to be grounded. There are 
not many sizes of it procurable. 

Lwitatiox" Silk Ca>~vas. — From the great expense of 
genuine silk canvas, the imitation is much used for - 
cushions and other large articles. When new, it looks nearly 
as well as the richer article, and it admits of being after- 
wards grounded. There are not many sizes made. 

Brace Ca>~tas is of the proper width for gentlemen's 
braces or suspenders. It is white or black. The former has 
sometimes a colored edge woven in, which is very pretty 
It is always of silk. 

Railway Canvas is a coarse and inexpensive fabric, much 
used for banner screens, anti-macassars and sofa cushions. 
Claret, brown arid drab are its usual colors. There is a 
variety manufactured on purpose for orne wool embroidery 
work, tinted of a pale sage green, and with colored threads 
at intervals, expressly for those designs. 

Mosaic Ca>~vas. — An exceedingly fine canvas, used for 
seed bead-work. It is the sort seen in cigar cases and simi- 
lar articles. 

Java Ca^tvas is a woven material, very unlike the other 
substances from which it takes its name. The threads are in 
pairs, and there are no holes between them. It is variously 
colored and of different degrees of fineness. Used to be 
employed for rugs, and such large articles. 

"Woollen canvas, brown thread canvas, and various other 
kinds, have been introduced from time to time : but I have 
enumerated all that are now employed. 

To Select Caxvas.— Hold it over something of a contrast- 
ing color, to see if there be any knots or blemishes, which 
are often of great importance, especially in silk canvas. Ex- 
amine, also, if the threads be even, and the meshes es, 



1 72 CHEOTLLE— CLOTH-W0KK. 

square. The threads should he round and firm, and the 
edges stout and good. 

Always keep canvas rolled up and covered with paper to 
preserve it from heing soiled. 

You use No. 3 heads with No. 22 canvas ; No. 2 heads 
with Nos. 19 or 20 canvas; No. 1 beads with No. 18 
canvas. 

It is to he understood whenever the number of any canvas 
is given, that French canvas, as being the best, is intended. 
English and German canvas differ from it very essentially in 
the numbering. 

Chenille. — One of the most beautiful materials used in 
fancy-work. When good, it presents the appearance of a 
roll, more or less fine, of the best velvet, the surface being 
smooth, even and close. In inferior chenille the pile is more 
open, and you can see the separate hairs or filaments. It is 
made in various sizes. The finest, termed embroidery che- 
nille, is used much in working on cloth, velvet, and such 
materials. Then there are gradations of size from that to 
the rolio chenille, which is as thick as a lady's finger. These 
medium sizes are termed ordinary chenille. 

Sometimes chenille contains a fine wire, which enables the 
worker to bend it into form for leaves, flowers, etc. This 
variety is called Wire Chenille. It is made in all the sizes. 
Chenille is sold by the piece, with the exception of the rolio, 
which may be obtained by the yard. 

Clotii-work. — This term comprises every article made in 
cloth, which is ornamented wit 1 1 braiding or embroidery, 
chiefly the former. The design is marked on the cloth and 
I hen worked. Some time ago, suppers, cushions, mats, pen- 
wipers, and an infinite variety of fancy articles were made 

thus, the cloth being purchased ready stamped at the Berlin 
ihop. lint sinoe the introduction of the Imperial Applique, 
(see Appligue,) which is so tnuch more effective and not 
much more expensive, plain cloth is rarely used. 



CORDS AND COTTONS. 173 



CORDS. 



Crochet Coed resembles that used for window-blinds, but 
made of white cotton. It is of various sizes and sold by the 
yard. Used for the centres of mats, etc. 

Fancy Silk Cords are made in various patterns, some- 
times having chenille or gold thread intermixed. Used for 
sofa cushions, bags, etc. 

Crystal Twine. — A fine colored twine, with gold or sil- 
ver foil wound round it. It is very pretty, but tarnishes 
easily. Some is entirely covered with gold or silver, and is 
then known as gold or silver twine. Sold in small balls. 

Crochet Twine. — A fine colored twine, used in crochet- 
ing over satin cord, or for other purposes. Very durable. 
Sold in balls. 



COTTONS. 

I will preface my detailed description of the varieties of 
cotton in general use for needlework by a few remarks on 
the different manufactures of this article which, I trust, will 
not be quite uninteresting to my readers. They will find in 
every pattern of mine, in which cotton, of any sort, forms 
one of the materials, that I name that of Messrs. Walter 
Evans & Co., of Derby, England, as that intended to be 
used. A little reflection will show the necessity for select- 
ing the manufacture of some one firm for my designs. Each 
maker has his own mode of distinguishing the sizes of 
his thread. Some number them from 1 upwards, using 
every number ; others take numbers at intervals, as 2, 4, 8, 
10, 12, 16, 20 ; others, again, employ the letters of the 
alphabet. Now, in giving a pattern of any article, which it 



174 COTTONS. 

is desirable for my readers to reproduce of the same size as 
the original, it was obviously necessary to name the cotton 
I had myself employed ; it was not sufficient to say cotton 
No. so-and-so ; since the No. 4 of one maker would be 
No. 20 of some one else, and, perhaps, No. 100 of a third 
firm. Nor is there less variation in the qualities of the cot- 
ton. I need not remind Americans that some varieties of 
raw cotton are infinitely superior to others ; and that it must 
make all the difference possible whether the best or the worst 
has been used for that which they are working. Again, in 
the process of manufacture, a perceptible difference arises; one 
Srm possessing, perhaps, a much greater amount of skill, as 
well as capital, than another, to say nothing of trade secrets, 
by which they can achieve a marked superiority. It was 
-requisite, therefore, to select the manufactures of some one 
house, whose character for excellence would justify the pro- 
minence I should give it. This position I have accorded to 
the manufactures of Messrs. W. Evans & Co. Having used 
their Boar's Head Cotton exclusively, in my own work, for 
years before I became occupied in fimcy-work designs for the 
public, I naturally felt some preference for them ; and find- 
ing that, after a very careful trial of all the leading cottons, 
I still liked the Boar's Head the best, both during the pro- 
cess of using it, and after its quality and color had been 
tested by w ashing and wearing, I have, up to the present 
time, employed no other ; and I may venture to say that the 
care and pains bestowed by Messrs. W. Evans and Co., on 
the production of any new material required by the changing 
tastes of the day, and the unvarying excellence of the origi- 
nal cottons, have justified me to the world in giving the 

Banotion and pledge of my name and recommendation to 
their manufactures. They have been used exclusively in 
Tin: Lvov's Library, and all the English periodicals, the 

Dames of which will be found on the title-page oi' this book, 



TATTING SOTTON. 



175 




.•ill of which have been, as many still are, under my direction. 
In the magazines of America, the name of the cotton manu- 
facturers has sometimes been omitted, probably from a mis- 
taken idea of advertising, combined with ignorance of the 
importance of designating the maker, without which the 
mere number is of no use ; or, indeed, of less than none, 
since it is likely to misguide the worker. In all such cases, 
the name of Messrs. "Walter Evans <fc 
Co. will supply the deficiency, being 
the one originally used. The label 
on these spools exhibits the family 
crest of the manufacturers ; and I add 
a,fao simile of it, to secure my Mends 
from imposition. The principal va- 
rieties of cotton I employ, are 
The Boar's Head Crochet and Sewing Cotton. — This 
is numbered from 1 to 150 ; the last-mentioned being very 
fine. This cotton has a clean, white, even appearance, 
and a clear, regular twist. It is not glazed. The spools, it 
will be observed, are rounded at one end, and bear the 
label already referred to. All crochet should be done in 
this cotton ; I also prefer it for hand-sewing. It is sold on 
spools. For crochet, Nos. 8, 10, 12, 16, and 20, are most 
used. For sewing machines, it is the best extant, and wound 
appropriately. 

Evans' Royal Glace Thread. — This is peculiarly adapted 
to linen-work. It is both white and colored. It is well 
adapted, also, to hand sewing. Nos. 16, 20, 24, 36, and 50, 
are much employed. 

Royal Embroidery and French Embroidery Cotton. 
— Used for all kinds of embroidery on muslin or linen. The 
sizes vary from No. 4, very coarse, to No. 100. No. 8 is 
used for broderie d la minute, as it is sufficiently coarse to 
make a spot at every stitch. 



176 



COLORED EMBROIDERY COTTON". 



Tatting Cotton. — There are three sizes, Xos. 1, 2, and 
3, made on purpose for tatting, and combining strength and 
softness. All fine tatting should be done in this. 

Knitting Cotton. — Soft and of a pure color. Made in 
various sizes. Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16, are the most 
used. Also especially adapted for darning. 

Moravian Cotton is a soft, untwisted cotton, used for 
tracing, satin-stitch and point lace, as well as other purposes. 

Mechlenburg Thread. — A strong and glossy linen thread, 
much used in point-lace ; also for knitting and crochet. 

Beading Cotton. — Employed in working the O. P. Beads. 
Some sizes are also admirable, for coarse tatting, for little 
boys' dresses, etc. Nos. 00, 000, 0000, 00000, of which 
Nos. 00, 000, are most used. 

All these have on their label the Boar's Head, which is the 
crest of the manufacturers, as well as their name and address. 

Colored Embroidery Cotton. — Scarlet, rose, and black. 
There are other colors made, but I have not found any 
except the three above mentioned which really wash well. 

I append a table of the sizes of cotton which should be 
used to produce a pattern of any dimensions you desire. 



Cotton. 


Hook. 


Stitches per 
inch. 


Squares per 
inch. 


No. 1 


15 


10 


8 


2 


— 


12 


4 


4 


— 


14 


4 J 


8 


18 


15 


5" 


12 


— 


17 


5* 


14 


— 


19 


Gi 


10 


20 


20 


6$ 


20 


— 


22 


n 


24 


21 


21 


8 


80 


— 


26 


s 1 . 


86 


24 


28 


'.•} 


40 


— 


80 


10 



In higher numbers the increase is proportionate, it being 

understood, of course, that a suitable hook is usnd. No. [*) 



POUND BEAD FRINGES. 17"? 

hook is used only for wool, twine and such matters By the 
aid of the all ove table, you may adopt any crochet pattern 
to any size you please. If, for instance, you have a pattern 
in square crochet, of eighty squares, and you wish it to be 
ten inches wide, you will see you must use ~No. 24 cotton. 
In ~No. 2 cotton, it would be tioenty inches wide. 

I have calculated for somewhat close work. Those who 
crochet loosely must make a little allowance. 

Charles Carville, 166 Fulton street, is the American agent 
for the cottons of this celebrated house. 



FRINGES. 

My readers need not be told that fringe is made in almost 
every sort of material. Those in beads and in silks are, how- 
ever, the kinds principally used in fancy-work. 

O. P. Bead Fringes are very much employed for the 
trimming of lambrequins, O. P. bead mats, table-covers, lamp 
ornaments ; and, in short, almost everything which is itself 
composed of the same sort of beads. Very strong Mecklen- 
burg thread (No. 1), or beading cotton, well waxed, is pro- 
per for threading them ; and they are either plainly done in 
loops, the colors of the beads being carefully selected to 
harmonize with those of the work, or they are woven and 
decorated here and there with short loops laid on the surface. 
To do this, it is merely necessary to thread three or four 
beads at regular intervals, and then put the needle in the 
same bead as you would have done had no loop been there. 
In whichever way these trimmings are made, they are usually 
graduated in depth. 

PouNr Bead Fringes are used with excellent effect foi 
many purposes, especially for trimming tables, the tops of 



178 



SILK FEIKGES. 



which are done in beads on canvas. As the description of 
the mode of doing one article will serve as a guide for any 
others, I will give particular directions for the very populai 
article. Suppose the work be in shades of white and bronze 
(flowers and leaves), with a blue ground. Procure beads to 
match, but of a larger size, if the work be done in one of the 
usual sizes, 2 or 3. Take a piece of strong tape and measure 
the edge of the table round ; divide this tape into four, five, 
or more parts, and so arrange the pattern that one may fill 
each, the tape being the foundation of the fringe. Fasten 
your thread on the tape, and thread say three inches of the 
darkest bronze ; sew on to the tape to form a loop. Almost 
close to it, thread an equal length of the next shade, but 
when making it into a loop twine it two or three times round 
the last half of the last. Treat every successive loop so. If 
you take each shade of bronze, from darkest to lightest, 
and then to darkest again; then a few loops of blue ; then the 
shades of white, then blue again, it will loop well. If you 
have greys in your white shades, take them for the centre, 
and the whites or lightest shades next the blue. The tape 
is afterwards sewed or nailed on the article to be trimmed. 

Black or white bead friuges may be made by the aid of 
bugles. The beads should be of two sizes. Thread x 1 
large, 1 small, 1 bugle, 1 small bead, x repeat for the depth, 
making the end of a few small ones. Work back to the 
heading of the fringe the same, but every alternate large 
bead instead of a fresh one, slip your needle through that of 
the first half. Take the next loop a little way off, and con- 
nect it with this by slipping through the large bead. This, 
if done <>a a ribbon, makes an extremely pretty bead 
collar. 

Sii.k FbHTGES are either of sewing silk or bullion. Bullion 
fringe is hard, and has every loop closely twisted. Sewing 
silk fringes have the threads loose from the heading. They 



ORNE FRINGE — GIMP — GAUGE. 



179 



are often crimped. The price depends no less on the close- 
ness of the silk than on its depth. 

Orne Fringe — (See Orne fringe balls). 

Gimp. — A sort of stiff lace edge made of fine silk cord. 
Used for various purposes in fancy-work, but no way differ- 
ing in texture from that employed in trimming dresses. Al- 
ways made to match the work. 




Gauge. — This is a little implement for measuring the sizes 
of knitting and crochet needles. I give a fac-simile of the 
bell gauge, which is, I think, the best of any. It is made of 
plated, or electrotyped metal, and each hole is numbered. 
From the material employed, the bell gauge is not liable to 
get worn or injured, which some other varieties have done. 
A knitting-needle is of a certain measurement when it will 
pass completely through a hole ; not when an inch or so of 



180 MUSLIMS- -NEEDLES. 

the point merely will enter. In measuring crochet hooks, 
the barb should go easily through the hole. We use the 
gauge for measuring round netting meshes, also, in the same 
way as knitting-needles, from Avhich they do not differ in any 
respect. 

Knitting Implements — (See Needles). 

Liteatjx. — Wire, coarser than cannetille, but still very 
fine, and covered with cotton or silk bound round it. 

Muslins. — It may be useful to indicate the muslins em- 
ployed in various sorts of fancy-work. For the bold, rich 
designs in broderie Anglaise, which are used for trimming 
skirts and other articles of ladies' under linen, it is usual to 
choose a fine long-cloth; the same material,, in fact, of which 
chemises and such things are usually made. If you desire 
anything not quite so solid for the same purposes, good jaco- 
net may be employed. 

For collars, sleeves and cuffs, French muslin or fine nan- 
sook is the appropriate material, except for broderie d la 
poste, or & la minute, for which jaconet is better, as firmer 
and stronger. For Swiss lace and appliquc-work in general, 
unless the design be extremely delicate, widow's lawn, a kind 
of close but clear muslin, gives much the best effect. I use 
French cambric, however, for infants' caps, or handkerchiefs. 
Awl I may observe, dpropos of handkerchiefs, that to waste 
time and eyesight in embroidering them on anything what- 
ever except good cambric, is one of the most foolishly ex- 
travagant acts of which a woman can be guilty. 



NEEDLES. 
A ooon work-woman, it is said, can dispense with good 

tools; but 1 can sec no reason for the infliction of bad ones; 
anil certain I am that no one is so utterly annoyed and cfis- 



CROCHET HOOKS — KNITTING NEEDLES — oiLLIPTICS. 181 

gusted with bad implements as sue who knows what they 
ought to be. In crochet and knitting-needles, more perhaps 
than in any other sort, is the difference between bad and 
good perceptible. A crochet needle should have the ex- 
treme point fine, especially in the higher numbers, but 
rounded and perfectly smooth, without the slighest approach 
to a sharp point. Even the barb should feel smooth to the 
finger. Common crochet hooks tear the fingers miserably, 
cut the silk or thread, and destroy the appearance of the 
work. Bad knitting-needles may also be classed among the 
minor miseries of life, especially to those who are fond 
of that pretty work. They are either blunt, or have a 
squat and very sharp point. A good knitting-needle tapers 
gradually, for perhaps the eighth of an inch, and the point, 
although fine, is not at all sharp. Sewing-needles have 
an equal difference of form, and also of wear. I have never 
been able, myself, to use any manufacture but those of 
Messrs. Boulton & Son, of Redditch, England ; and it is 
certainly not too much to say that I should recognize their 
knitting or crochet-needles in the dark, by mere touch. 
The principal varieties are, 

Crochet Hooks, No. 12 to 24, inclusive. 12, 15, 18, 21, 
24, make a good useful set ; sufficient for any one. 

Knitting Needles are from 12 to 26, and made short or 
long. The short are by far the most convenient for small 
articles. They also answer as netting meshes. When 
coarser knitting needles are required, you use bone, ivory, 
or wood, as the metal ones are too heavy to be pleasant in 
the hand. Steel knitting-needles are made even coarser, 
but for the reason already given, I do not recommend then- 
use. 

Elliptics are sewing-needles, with egg-shaped eyes, very 
easy to thread, and particularly adapted for muslin-work. 
Many ladies also find them very excellent for sewing. 



182 BOBBINET. 

Rug Needles have long eyes and blunt points ; used foi 
canvas work. 

Tapestry Needles, or short-long eyes, have eyes like 
those of rug needles, hut sharp points. Used for embroi- 
dery on cloth, satin, etc. 

Sewing-needles are used from No. 1 to No. 16, which 
last is very fine indeed. I employ the fine sizes in prefer- 
ence to regular beading-needles, as the eyes of the latter are 
too small to hold strong thread or silk. 

Netting-needles are of various sizes, and when very 
large should be made of wood or ivory. 

Beading-needles are extremely long and thin. Made 
in various sizes. All those I have mentioned are made by 
Boulton & Son. 

Bone, ivory, and wooden needles are made of various 
sizes and lengths. When sold in pairs each one has a knob 
a't one end. The bone needles are apt to have roughnesses, 
which injure the material ; it is proper therefore to examine 
them carefully before using. Long No. 12 are always used 
for Orne knittinar. Bone crochet hooks are sometimes used 



NET 



This is an article so much used in muslin, and other 
fancy-work that it may be well to mention the principal vari- 
eties. Brussels is the sort used in Swiss lace ; it is soft, 
without drees, and has Bomewhat large diamond-shaped holes. 

IioiatixKT, employed for Tapisserie d'Auxerre, and other 
hue-work, is stiffer, but the best kinds are not very still*. 
It is necessary to see that the holes are hexagonal (which is 
not always the case), as no other sort will allow of pretty 
designs being darned on it. 



ORNE FRINGE BALLS — PASSEMENTERIE. 183 

Filet is, as its name implies, an imitation of hand-netting, 
which it exactly resembles. It is both black and white ; and 
is made in various degrees of fineness. It is very wide, and 
must be cut bias when intended to imitate square-netting. 
The black is much used for darning designs in colored silks, 
for cushions, mats, and other articles. The white is some- 
times employed for applique work, to which purpose, how- 
ever, it is hardly well adapted. 

Guipure net, is a very open fabric, somewhat like guip- 
ure bars. It is therefore used in collars and sleeves for ap- 
plique work : but it is a very poor imitation of the worked 
buttonhole-stitch. 

Orne Balls — Are balls of wool so dyed that each one, 
if properly worked, produces a cushion, anti-macassar, or 
other article, in one perfect design. They are of three kinds 
— for crochet, knitting, and embroidery, for which full in- 
structions are given. 

Orne Fringe Balls, are similar baUs, dyed expressly 
for fringes. On unwinding one, a small white space appears 
every few inches on the fabric. You cut it in lengths, at 
this place, and then folding each length evenly in the mid- 
dle, and laying the pieces in regular order, you crochet 
them into any crochet edging already made. Never cut 
more than four or six lengths at a time, and crochet them 
in ; as, if they get displaced, the effect is destroyed, the 
wool being dyed to form certain patterns. 

Passementerie. — Although gimps, cords, and fancy tas- 
sels of .every description, go under the general name of pas- 
sementerie, the term is especially applied to the beautiful 
tassels and other articles made in Paris, of variously colored 
silks and gold thread, woven in an infinity of designs over 
wooden moulds. Screen and fan handles, entirely so 
covered, and decorated with tassels to correspond, are 
among the most elaborate of these articles ; tassels far 



)84 PERFORATED CARDBOARD — PIQUE — POINT PAPER. 

srnoking-caps, bags, purses, and dress ornaments, are very 
usually found. They are always made to correspond pre 
cisely, in color, with the work they are intended to com- 
plete ; and when the tassels of a purse are in passementerie, 
the rings are of the same. 

Penweper Ornaments, or buttons, as they are sometimes 
called, are gilded and enamelled ornaments, about an inch 
high, with a small fiat-headed screw fitting into them. The 
head of Punch, birds and animals, flags, and other devices 
may be obtained. The screw goes through the leather 
round of the bottom of the penwiper, then through the 
linen or chamois pieces on which the pen is to be wiped, and 
finally through the upper part, where it is screwed into the 
ornament. Thus you may at any time renew the linen, which, 
of course, soon gets soiled. 

Perforated Cardboard, is cardboard with minute holes 
at regular distances throughout it. It is of various degrees 
of fineness, and sold in sheets. There are also perforated 
cards, for book-markers, sides of a basket, and other uses, of 
which the border is more or less wide and often ornamented. 
Designs for mottoes for these book-markers, religious, affec- 
tionate, or friendly, are also obtainable. 

Pique, or diamond-pattern marcella, is used for braiding 
and embroidery. 

Point Paper is often called checked paper, and is covered 
wit li lines at regular distances diagonally and horizontally. 
It is sold in sheets of about the size of foolscap paper. The 
size of the squares differs very much, ten not occupying more 
than half an inch in some sheets, while four go to the inch in 
Others. Hence, its great use to those who do much t-iney- 
work, sine., it often happens that a design is engraved on so 
small a Bcale in a magazine, that though you can judge of 
the effect, yon oannol work it without trying your eyes. It 
is not only Less troublesome but much more satisfactory to 



POUNCE!) PATTERNS KINGS. 135 

copy it first on point paper of a larger size, which may he 
easily done. Even an embroidery design may he thus en- 
larged, for if traced on a sheet of fine paper, it requires hut 
trifling artistic skill to copy it on the larger sheets, square 
for square. Names and mottoes for hook-markers may also 
be drawn on it, hy the aid of the crochet alphabet, before 
you begin to work them. 

Pounced Patterns are the patterns prepared for marking 
an embroidery design on cloth, velvet, satin or muslin. Being 
drawn in outline on thin paper, it is pricked evenly and at 
equal distances throughout with a coarse needle. If the 
design be in halves, quarters, or any other number of parts, 
of which one is an exact copy of the rest, fold the paper very 
evenly so many times and prick through all the folds at once. 
The only care necessary to take here is to be sure that the 
folds are even. If, on opening the paper, you perceive any 
defect, you must do another, it being impossible to remedy 
it. Bank post paper is the sort used for pounced patterns. 

To use them, lay the paper over the material to be marked, 
ascertaining that both are very even. Keep them in their 
places by means of weights. Finely ground pumicestone 
(slightly colored with powdered charcoal, if the material be 
white) is then rubbed over, and on removing the paper the 
pattern will be seen on the material. If, however, it seems 
likely to rub off, it may be again outlined with a sable brush 
and a solution of flake white or Indian ink. But in marking 
muslin work, rub over some powder blue, and iron it over 
the paper briskly. Muslin-work is always, however, much 
better marked by those whose business it is to do it. 

Rings made of steel, of various sizes, are much used in 
crochet. Sold by the dozen or gross. 



186 DACCA AND FLOSS SILK — FILOSELLE. 



SILKS. 

Crochet Silk. — A silk twisted like sewing thread, and of 
various sizes. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are most common. No. 1 
is the coarsest. The coarser the silk, the more expensive it 
is, so that No. 1 will cost at least twice as much, in buying 
by the skein, as No. 5. By the pound, there is no difference. 
The color of silks also influences the price. Plain colors are 
of one price, ingrain of another, and every shade of scarlet is 
still more expensive. Some retail houses equalize all these 
prices ; but in that case the purchaser pays more than he 
would elsewhere for the ordinary colors. Pearsall's silks, 
which always have a label with their name on every skein, 
hold deservedly the highest place among those who under- 
stand how to select silks. 

Netting Silk. — Real netting silk is not so hard twisted 
as that made for crochet ; but very many people employ the 
latter only, not aware of any distinction between them. 

Soie d' Avignon is a very fine and delicate variety of nett- 
ing silk, sold on reels ; and used for those very fragile and 
exquisite fabrics termed fairy purses. 

Dacca Silk is sold in rather long skeins ; and is used for 
embroidery. It is moderately twisted, not altogether un- 
twisted like floss, which otherwise it much resembles. 

Floss Silk is a beautiful and most glossy preparation of 
silk, used in Berlin-work. It is susceptible of the most deli- 
cate and brilliant dyes, and is sold in short, twisted skeins. 

Filoselle. — Is not a pure silk, but being very glossy 
Olid beautiful, is used in the coarser kinds of Berlin-work, 
being nearly equal in thickness to eight-thread Berlin wool. 

Each skein weighs about a quarter of an ounce. In no va- 
riety of this beautiful material is then' a greater difference 

of quality than in filoselle. Some is hardly richer looking 



TiBOURET — TOLLE CTREE — TRACING PAPER. 187 

than cotton; Pearsall's is hardly less brilliant than their 
floss. 

China Silk is sold on very small reels, each of which con- 
tains hut a few yards of silk. It is much employed for seed 
bead-work and in braiding. 

Sewing Silk is bought in long skeins. It should be even 
and glossy. 

The terms ombre and chine are used for silks in the same 
sense as for wools. The former means shaded in one color, 
the latter in two or more. 

The price of silk has of late years varied so much, that I 
cannot name with any accuracy a reasonable rate for it. 
Last year it was at least one-half dearer than it had been two 
years before. 

Skeleton Frames are frames of travelling and carriage 
bags, having leather handles, sides and top, with neat steel 
fastening ; the outer part is dark, strong calico ; the inner a 
neat material, with pocket. They are covered with a piece 
of braiding or embroidery. 

Tabouret. — A material of silk and wool, usually with al- 
ternate stripes of satin and watering ; employed for the backs 
of sofa cushions. Five-eighths of a yard wide. Sold by the 
yard or square. 

Toile Ciree is an oil-cloth, green on one side and black 
on the other ; used to give substance to muslin-work while 
in progress. The muslin is tacked over it, on the green side. 
It greatly preserves the sight. Point lace is sometimes 
worked on it. If good, it is thin and extremely pliant. The 
commoner sorts are stiff and very disagreeable to work on. 

Tracing Paper. — Thin paper made transparent by oil. 
Sold by color-men. A little benzoin brushed over bank post- 
paper answers better ; but the scent is not agreeable. 



1 83 EUGENIE AND MARQUISE BAGS — PURSES. 



TRIMMINGS. 

I might fill a book "with the various matters under this 
head, but mean to confine myself to a simple list of such as 
are required for the usual articles of fancy-work. 

Sofa Cushions. — Four silk tassels and a length of cord to 
correspond, usually two and a half yards. There are always 
new patterns coming out, but the Dresden, Grecian, and 
Eugenie are among the prettiest. Usually sold in the set. 

Smoking-Caps — Cokd and Tassel. — The tassel is either a 
round flat button with deep fringe, or a tassel suspended by 
a cord from a flat button. 

Banner Screens. — Five-eighths of rich fringe (not always 
quite so much) ; two pairs of tassels, each pair connected by 
one-fourth of a yard of cord ; three yards of thicker cord. 

Hand Screens. — Handles of passementerie, ivory, or gilded 
wood, cord of two different kinds, and fringe (four inches 
deep, at least,) to siu-round them ; or one cord with narrow 
quilled satin ribbon. 

Bags. — Carriage bags require skeleton frame and cord to 
cover the joining of the work to the leather gores at the 
sides ; usually one yard and a half. 

Eugenie Bags, or those with silk tops and work below, 
require fine silk cord for runnings, and coarse for handles, and 
to cover the join of the silk and canvas. 

Marquise Bags. — The small Parisian things with clasps 
require passementerie tassels. 

Pursks. — Those of all silk should have passementerie tas- 
sels. If short, a handsome tassel and a double cord run in 
the top to draw it up like a bag; or a steel, silver, or gilt 
clasp. When steel or gilt beads are used in the purse, the 
clasp and tassel should correspond. The same may be said 
of long purses, The handsomest French purses always have 



BERLIN OR ZEPHYR AND SHADED WOOLS. 189 

passementerie trimmings. The Germans have them hi metal. 
There is a peculiar sort of fastening for a short purse, consist- 
ing of two steel or gilt bars connected by a chain, one of 
which is sewecl to each half of the purse top. A ring slips 
over both and keeps the contents safely in the purse. A tas- 
sel is sewed at the end. This trimming is termed a Diable ; 
why, nobody can guess, unless it be that it would take that 
celebrated person's skill to open the purse so fastened. The 
chain serves to suspend it to the finger. Short purses some- 
times have a fringe along the end ; and this is often used on 
one end of a long purse, while the other has a tassel. 

Tobacco Bags, or Blagues, have strings of fine silk cord 
to draw them up, and a handsome tassel at the end. 

Whatnots require the same sort of tassels as sofa cushions, 
with about four yards of silk cord and inch wide satin ribbon 
to match. 

Knitted Scarfs and Neckties should have a pair of che- 
nille tassels and a ring. 



WOOLS. 



Berlin or Zephyr Wool". — This is made in two sizes 
only, with four and eight threads. The former is technically 
known as single, the latter as double Berlin. Double Berlin 
is procurable only in half-ounce skeins ; but the single is sold 
also in small skeins, of which about twenty-four go to an 
ounce. When purchasing for knitting, therefore, it is pro- 
per to mention that you want half-ounce skeins. Berlin wool 
is variously colored. First, there are plain colors, comprising 
in a well assorted stock at least five hundred shades. 

Shaded Wools, which have every skein shaded from the 
darkest to the lightest, and then back again to the darkest, 



190 WOESTED OE KNITTING YAEN — PATENT OENE BALLS. 

of one color. Some of these are exquisitely beautiful ; but 
the blue is almost always dingy and dirty looking. 

Ombee Wool is a similar wool, shaded in more colors than 
one. 

Peael Wool has alternately every quarter of an inch in 
white and some one color. Green and white, chocolate and 
white, and some few other colors are very pretty. I have 
seen a variety also in red, white and blue, which was very 
nice for comforters. It is employed almost entirely for 
knitting. 

Ceystal Wool, or Spangled Wool, is wool round which 
narrow threads of gold or silver are entwined. It is very 
effective for some purposes, but should never be employed 
for any article that will require washing. I have seen child- 
ren's knitted basques, in delicate colors, made partly in 
this wool ; and, of course, the first washing would destroy 
them. 

Fleecy Wool. — A coarser and less expensive material 
than Berlin, though for many purposes it looks nearly as well. 
The white and black are made in every thickness from two 
threads to twelve. The colors in two, four and eight only 
are generally procurable. There are two qualities, super^ 
and common or ordinary. The super is almost as cheap as 
the other, being finer and having a greater length in the 
weight. 

Angola Wool. — Sold in half-pound packets, for knitting 
children's socks. 

Lamb's Wool is sometimes obtainable for the same pur- 
pose. 

Woested, or Knitting Yaen, is a coarse, strong yarn, 
much used in knitting. 

I'm in i Ohm'; Balls. — These are manufactured for knitt- 
ing .-mil rnichcl. Kadi hall does one design, and is adapted 
only for it. A croehet hall will not work out well lor knitt- 



SHETLAND AND PYRENEES WOOLS — CREWELS. 191 

ing, nor a knitting one if done in crochet. An engraving of 
the design and directions accompany each ball. Some years 
ago, a Mr. Whytock, of Edinburgh, Scotland, brought out 
an article of this kind ; but it was very defective, and the 
pattern rarely was properly developed. The new orne wools 
leave nothing to be desired. The designs are bold, clear, 
and most artistic ; and the directions equally good. The 
colors, too, from some peculiarity of the dye, get brighter 
instead of dimmer from age, provided they are kept free 
from dust. 

Orne Fringe Balls are so woven and dyed that when 
cut into lengths, they form a rich and beautiful woollen 
fringe, for knitted or crocheted orne work. 

Shetland Wool. — A fine soft wool, used for veils, shawls, 
and many other purposes. It is not usually to be had in any 
great variety of shades ; but the scarlet and crimson are 
beautiful. 

Pyrenees Wool. — Is a finer, softer, and more beautiful 
wool than the Shetland ; and the dye is, at once, the fastest 
and most delicate of any. Visitors to Paris may get it at 
several of the Berlin houses there ; but it is not yet gene- 
rally introduced into England or America. 

Crewels. — Fine wools, done up in small, tightly-twisted 
skeins ; once very popular, but now but little known, being 
superseded by the delicate fabrics of the Shetland Islands 
and the Pyrenees. 



END OP MATERIALS. 



ON MAKING UP OF FANCY-WORK. 



A few hints for the proper fitting up and completing the 
most prominent articles will, I am persuaded, not he unwel- 
come. 

Note-cases, Portfolios, and similar things. — Take 
four pieces of cardboard of exactly the same size, for the 
covers ; and for each pocket you wish to make, one very 
slightly smaller. The four pieces are a little smaller than 
the worked cover, so that the edges may turn in well. If 
the book is to be rather thick, you cut out a strip of stout 
board for the back ; or a piece of fine, thin whalebone will 
be even better ; but this is not always needed. Cover the 
pocket first, by cutting a piece of the lining silk, a little 
more than double the width of the card to be covered ; and 
two and a half inches longer. Lay the card in, so that an 
equal length of silk is left at each end, and stitch the ends 
close to the card, running the silk also in the length, so that 
the card is kept quite tight. You do not turn in the edges 
of silk. Each pocket is done so. Now tack the worked 
cover, all in one piece, over two of the four cards ; and the 
lining (also in one piece) over the other two ; but if it is to 
be thick, the whalebone must be put down the centre of the 
cover, in a casing, between the two cards; while an equal 
Bpace is left between them, in the lining. Before joining the 
cover and lining, \n\\ the pockets to the latter, opening 
199 



SHAVING BOOKS — SOFA CUSHIONS — lAREIAGE BAGS. 103 

inwards or outwards, as may be chosen. Run them with 
tacking thread in their places, the inch of silk left at each 
end making the means of opening the pocket ; it is to be 
folded in a neat plait under it, close to the raw edges of silk 
in the length, but not at the other. Tack and then sew in 
the lining (with the pockets thus added, and also with an 
elastic along the centre, secured on the wrong side), to the 
cover. If loops are to be left for a pencil to close it, make 
two on one side, and one, between them, on the other, all 
of folded silk, the ends being secured between lining and 
cover. A neat silk cord, to match the work, is sewed 
round, and covers all the seams. 

Shaving Books, made of crochet, knitting, or braided 
cloth or velvet, are made in the same way, but without 
pockets. They are about the size of an octavo volume. 
Pieces of soft linen, neatly hemmed, are fastened in by the 
elastic ; and it is intended that one should be withdrawn 
every day, that the razor may be wiped on it. 

Sofa Cushions. — The cushion should not be too soft, or 
much of the beauty of the work is lost. Cut a stout calico 
lining, on the cross, and cover one side of each piece with 
fine wadding ; of this make the bag and fill it with good 
feathers. This is much the best way of making the pillow. 
If the covering is in white silk canvas, it should be lined 
with white satin. The back may be of tabouret, satin, or 
velvet. Make the worked part and the back into a case, in 
which slip the pillow. Finish with cord or gimp, and tassels. 

CaekIage Bags. — The work should be one piece for both 
sides ; the canvas, or cloth edges turned in at the sides, and 
sewed to the edges of the bag. At the top, the edge of the 
canvas must be laid under the leather, which is stitched 
down over it. The handles are merely tacked on. They 
must be removed for mounting, and afterwards carefully 
sewed down in the same places, over the canvas. Cover all 

9 



194 TOBACCO AND HAND OR EUGENIE BAGS. 

the seams, and the edges of the leather along the top, with 
a fine silk cord.' Observe that the work must he made to 
fit the frame, not the latter to the work, as frames are made 
only in certain gradations of size, except to order ; and what 
is called an out size, even if smaller, is always more expen- 
sive. 

Tobacco Bags. — If braided, are of three or four pieces of 
cloth, which, when joined, terminate in a point. A lining 
of chamois leather or buckskin should be made, and put in 
where the seams are joined. It should exactly fit, and be 
fastened here and there to the outer part. Turn in the 
edges towards each other, and sew them together. Cover 
all the seams with fine silk cord. Add a handsome tassel at 
the end, and at each side. Sew in small steel rings, in which 
to ran double cords, to draw it up. They must be a little 
within the rim. Crochet and netted ones are made the 
same. 

Hand Bags, ok Eugenie Bags, have a worked or straw 
basket below, and a silk top. The straw basket, which is 
narrow, oval, and has no stiffening, is very nice, if procura- 
ble. But work looks very handsome. Do a strip about six 
inches wide, and five-eighths of a yard long, in any border or 
set pattern. Cut two pieces of stout cardboard, two inches 
wide, and half the length of the work, and round off the cor- 
ners. Make them so as exactly to lit the work. Cover one 
side of one piece with wadding, over which put silk. Do the 
same to the other, but without the silk. Tack them to- 
gether. Line the work with silk, or other lining, turning in 
the edges of both together. Take a pieoe of good silk, the 
length of the work, and double the depth, at least. Join up 
the ends; line it, and pu1 a running in the top, for ribbon 01' 

cords, to draw it with a narrow frill above. Sew the silk to 

the oanvaa, and the Latter to the cardboard, the two parts 
of which have previously been taoked together, the wadded 



BANNER SCREENS — SMOKING CAPS — MATS. 195 

part to come inside the bag. Cover all the seams with cord, 
and a quilled ribbon may be added where canvas and silk 
join. Handles of cord, or a strip of canvas, worked to 
match the bag, are added. These bags are so elegant, por- 
table, and so very commodious, they are deservedly very 
popular. 

Fancy Bags are always lined with silk or satin ; but netted 
ones always require a double lining. 

Banner Screens. — These are either mounted on a pole, 
or on an apparatus for fastening to the chimney-piece. In 
either case, the work must be lined with silk of the same 
color as the ground, the bottom cut into a handsome scal- 
loped form, with a handsome fringe, the sides finished with 
gimp, and two pairs of tassels ; the top draped with cord. 
The trimming for a banner screen must always be made ex- 
actly to match. Whether with a pole or chimney-fitting, the 
top is always sewed on gilt rings run on the pole. 

Smoking Caps. — These are in two shapes; either pointed, 
in which case they are composed of five similar sections, 
meeting at the point, or of a straight piece set in a round 
crown. Unless the material itself 'be very thick, it should 
be lined with bed-tick made in the same shape, and over it 
with black silk. Of course, the black silk cap is made com- 
pletely and then turned inside out, so that the seams are 
concealed. A silk cord to match the materials should be 
sewed round the edge of the crown to conceal the part 
where it joins the head-piece. When the tassel is sewed on 
it is complete. 

Mats. — Whenever you wish the foundation to be s^jf, 
whether the centre of the mat be in Berlin-work, crochet, 
beads, or braiding, cut out a shape in cardboard as stout as 
you can penetrate with a needle, and large enough to receive 
not only the centre but so much of the border as may require 
to be on a foundation. Of course, it must be of the proper 



196 HAND SCREENS — WIIATNOTS. 

shape. Lay the centre on and tack it firmly down all round 
the edges. Then sew down the border, which shoidd always 
be so as to cover the edges of the centre. Gum another 
piece of cardboard of the same size on the back of this, when 
it will completely hide the stitches, besides making it doubly 
firm. A piece of colored paper may be pasted over the 
cardboard to complete its neat appearance. 

Hand Screexs. — "Wire frames, silk or satin fancy cords, or 
quilled ribbon, fringe, and handles are requisite. If the 
screens be transparent, as in netting, both sides of the frame 
must be covered with satin. If white silk canvas, one side 
with white satin and the other with silk or satin of the color 
of the fringe. Then sew on the work very evenly. Add the 
fringe, and afterwards the ribbon or cords and handles. Two 
cor Is, at least, should be used. One to match the fringe, 
and the other of a lighter material, such as chenille And satin 
blended. 

Whatnots. — I append an engraving (see Plate VI., Fig. 
G,) of these very commodious little articles, which are meant 
to be suspended between windows, or in any other convenient 
place. The front is the only part that is worked ; and it is 
done in canvas, or crochet, or simple braiding on cloth. A 
stout cardboard frame is made, on which the work is sewed. 
It is lined with fluted silk, and the back covered with silk or 
cloth. Being suspended to the wall, this part is not seen. 
The best way to line a Whatnot is to take pieces of card- 
board, very slightly less than the three composing the frame, 
(viz. front, back and foundation), cover each, wadding the 
last-named; sew them together; and, having brushed the 
inner pari of the frame with gum-water, dropping this case 
in. Finish with cords round the top :uid sides; or quilled 
ribbon may be used for the front. Add cord and tassels, 
:is in the engraving, and another pair of tassels, one at each 

end. 



TO QUILL RIBBON FOR TRIMMINGS. 197 

To Qtni i. Ribbon for Trimmings. — This is so much used 
that many readers will probably be glad of a hint. Allow 
nearly three times as much ribbon as the length required ; 
have a piece of very narrow tape to run it on ; take a stitch 
or two to fasten the tape and centre of the width of the rib- 
bon ; make a small plait towards the right, and another close 
to it, but not folding over it, to the left ; run them down 
lightly, through the tape ; and this double plait being made, 
leave about half the length of ribbon plain, before making 
another. This looks very much handsomer than a fuller 
quilling. A gold or fancy cord should afterwards be run 
along the centre to hide the stitches. 

The French often put on this trimming by slightly gum- 
ming the tape and pressing it down in its place. I may add, 
they also fasten down raw edges of silk or satin in this way 
very neatly. It answers extremely well. 



LADIES 7 ORNAMENTAL WORK, 



SUITABLE FOE PRESENTS. 



How often have I heard the exclamation, " "Well, I should 
like to give so-and-so something of my own work; but, then, 
what can I do ?" and the speaker recalls one article and 
another of decoration or utility, and puzzles herself vaiuly to 
think of something else. The difficulty is tenfold increased 
if a gentleman is to be the recipient. To aid such bewildered 
people, I append a list of the most suitable gifts. In each, 
of course, there is an infinite variety. 

Antimacassars. — In cotton and wool; netted, crocheted, 
or knitted. 

Bags. — Carriage, hand, and small fancy bags. 

Bascjuks, or jackets, in crochet or knitting. 

Borders for table-covers. 

Book-Makki.ks. 

Bracks (Suspenders.) — Generally on canvas, black or white. 

Hi: \mii is.— In crochet or bead-work. 

Cigae Cases. — Embroidered, braided, or crocheted. 

Covers for cushions, music stools, small tables, etc. 

Cushions, small and largo, worked, braided, or em- 
broidered, 

Dot] iv-.. Braided <>n linen <>r muslin, netted, crocheted, 
or knil ted, jen oiled doyleya 

108 



SUITABLE PRESENTS. 109 

Doylets for bread, cheese, and fruit dishes. 

Foot Muffs. — Crocheted or embroidered. 

Gauntlet Mitts. — Knitted in wool. 

Gauntlet Overgloves. — Knitted in wool. 

Hoods. — Knitted or crocheted. 

Lambrequins, or mantel drapery — Berlin-work. 

Mats. — In every sort of work. 

Mitts. — Crocheted, netted, or knitted. 

Muffatees. — Knitted or crocheted. 

Music Cases. — Berlin-work. 

Note Cases. — Bead-work, braiding, or applique. 

Nubians. — Always knitted. A scarf three yards long and 
half a yard wide, done with coarse needles and a light stitch 
in Shetland wool. The most comfortable and graceful wrap 
for the head and shoulders when exposed to evening air in a 
light dress. 

Opera Mantles. — Braided, knitted, or crocheted. 

Ottomans. — Usually in Berlin-work. 

Penwipers. — Braiding, bead, or applique-work. 

Portfolios. — Braiding, applique, or Berlin-work. 

Purses. — There are at least two hundred varieties, in 
crochet, braiding and netting. Long purses are considered 
as appropriate for gentlemen, and short ones for ladies. A 
long purse should have one square and one round end. 

Rjgolettes. — Warm head-dresses, knitted or crocheted. 

Sachets. — Small, embroidered scent-bags. 

Screens. — Banner, pole, or hand screens. 

Scarfs. — Netted, knitted and crocheted. 

Shaving Books. 

Slippers. — Of every sort. 

Smoking Caps. 

Sofa Cushions. — Of every kind. 

Sultanas, or Handkerchief Cases. — Braided or embroi- 
dered. 



*200 OBSOLETE ARTICLES. 

Toilet Sachets. — Cases for night-dresses, made in pique 
in the form of an envelope, braided generally with cotton al- 
liance braid. 

Tobacco Bags. — Braided, crocheted, knitted and netted. 

Travelling Footstools. — A small folding stool, the 
cushion of which is in Berlin-work. When shut, it is 12 
inches by 6, and H deep. 

Watch-hooks. — In every sort of work. 

Whatnots. — Braiding or Berlin-work. 



OBSOLETE ARTICLES. 

Itali vn Braid. — A linen tape, made on the pillow, in the 
same m& \mer as thread lace. Used in making and repairing 
Italian P >int. 

Maltes e Ditto. — A variety of the above. 

Coronation, or Victoria Ditto. — A cotton braid, round, 
and graduated from the thickness of coarse cotton to that of 
a small embroidered leaf in satin-stitch, which, indeed, it 
much resembled when worked. Some beautiful articles 
braided in this material, collars, sleeves, etc., were to be 
seen in the Exhibition of 1851 ; but though common enough 
until that time, it has never since been procurable. 

Rolto Fringe. — This was much used at one period for 
trimming mats, having a thick, long, fleecy looking pile. It 
has not been made for a year or two. 



GLOSSARY. 



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POSTSCRIPT. 



"While the Manual of Fancy-work has been going through 
the press, I have been engaged in preparing for publi- 
cation a companion volume on all the various branches 
of that still more useful art, Plain Needle-work. This 
book, which will appear almost simultaneously with the 
present, is entitled "The Manual of the Wardrobe;" 
it is a treatise upon taste and hygiene in dress ; the kinds 
and qualities of fabrics, and their adaptation to seasons and 
occasions; with directions for cutting, fitting, and making 
garments for ladies and children, preparing bed, table, and 
toilet linen ; and complete instructions for the laundry — the 
whole being suited to the use of families. Of course, the 
general introduction of the sewing machine has made a revo- 
lution hi the once tedious occupation of plain needlework ; 
and elaborate instructions for the use of this great invention 
will be found in its pages, with notices of the various parts 
of each garment to be done by the Wheeler & Wilson ma- 
chine. In the course of writing it, I have been compelled to 
make researches in the various leading stores and manu- 
factories of New York, to ascertain the comparative merits 
of the (lill'crciit articles. Everywhere 1 have been reminded 
thai 1 am in America and among American gentlemen, by 
the courteous manner in w Irion niv inquiries have been an- 
swered, and the eager wish displayed to alVord me all possihle 

information; and this has had reference not only to the exist- 

206 



POSTSCRIPT. 207 

ing, but to the future state of affairs, since- contemplated im- 
provements have been exhibited to me, and I have been 
encouraged frankly to state my objection to anything I 
deemed imperfect. Thus, on complaining of the danger that 
careless wearers of skeleton skirts so frequently incur from 
entangling their feet in the hoops, Messrs. Douglas & Sher- 
wood showed me a design of a detachable fastening, by 
which the springs might be removed from a muslin skirt, 
literally in an instant, and replaced as easily and as speedily, 
on its return from the laundry. This detachable fastening, 
which is just patented, will obviate this danger entirely, 
prevent the necessity for an over-skirt in hot weather, and 
maintain the acknowledged preeminence of the Douglas & 
Sherwood skirts over all others. 

I mention this contemplated improvement merely to show 
what advantages have been proffered to me, in gaining an ac- 
quaintance with all the novelties and excellences in the fabrics 
connected with the wardrobe. In all quarters, I have been 
assured of cooperation in any plans I might form for assisting 
my readers in their selections. And having, also, constant 
communication with the leading firms in France, Germany, 
and England, in all matters relating to the Toilette and 
Worktable, I propose to share my advantages with my 
friends, by executing commissions for such as may reside at 
too great a distance from New York to make their own 
purchases, without any extra cost to my correspondents. In 
doing so, I shall bring to bear, also the result of many years' 
experience in London, where I daily made purchases for cor- 
respondents not only in the United Kingdom, but in her 
most distant colonies. Here I shall pursue the plan which 
in my former home gave so much satisfaction. I shall per- 
sonally superintend the execution of any commission, whether 
it be for the most trifling article of needlework or a complete 
trousseau. I shall also send paper patterns of the newest 



•208 POSTSCRIPT. 

shapes in mantillas, basques, etc., to my correspondents, so 
that they will be able to make any article they may choose 
for themselves. 

Another branch of order which merits particular care (the 
execution of commissions for hair jewelry and devices), I am 
happily in a position to carry out with the utmost exactitude ; 
and to guarantee that the hair sent shall be that actually 
used — a point of much importance to the wearer, though 
often and very cruelly overlooked by the worker. 

To those readers of the Manual who may wish for lessons 
in any of the various accomplishments it teaches, I am happy 
to offer my services, whether they reside in New York or 
any other part, provided that the expenses of my visit are 
secured. 

Finally, I shall be glad to answer any inquiries in my 
power from any of my readers ; and shall only request that 
they will inclose with their own letter, directed to Mns. 
Matilda Pullan, Box 40, Brooklyn Post-Office, 1ST. Y., a 
clearly-addressed stamped envelope for the reply ; while the 
writers of those letters that do not require a private answer, 
will find a reply under their own initials in the following 
number of Frank Leslie's Magazine ; in the pages of which 
will appear, every month, choice novelties in the leading 
styles of fancy-work. 



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tain!] _ Acting Proverbs, Dramatic Charades, Acting Charades, or Drawing- 
room Pantomimes, Musical Burlesques, Eat Leans Vrrants, Parlor Games, Games 
of Action, Forfeits, Science in Sport and Parl< r Magic, and a choice collection of 
carious men.al and mechanical Pussies, &c, illustrated with nearly 300 Engrav- 
ings and Diagrams, the ■whole being a fund of never-ending entertainment. By 
the anther . ..rioian's Owi. B : k." Nearly 400 pages, limo, cloth, gilt 
side s: un| . ■■ Tie Sociable ; or, One Thousand and One Home AmuseuKr.:-." 
is a repertory of games and other entertainments, calculated for the use of 
family parties, the fireside circle or those social gatherings among friends and 
r.:ighbors which rr.ss away the winter evenings with so much animation and 
delig le lor any company to exhaust all the sources of irre- 
proachable mirth and mutual enjovment produced in this volume. 
Price — .1 $1 50 

The Magician's Ovm Book : or. A Compete Guide to : 

of Conjuring. Being a Hand-Book of Parlor Magic, and containing several 
hundred amusing Magical, Magnetic. ... Electrical, and Chemical Experiments, 
As: ;-:shizg Transmutations, ~ 'Wonderful Sleight-of-Hand and (. 
Curious a:.. ..int and Entertaining Tricks and Questions 
inXumbers. Secret "\s riting ex- 1 tint .1. S (eights and Subtleties in .Legerdemain, 
&:.. together with all the most noted Tricks of Modern Performers. I '.-> . . 
with, over 503 T T; . -. 1 -.. ■ •.. g It - nip, 400 pages. 
Here is the whole process made simple of manipulating the cards, and perform- 
ing Tricks with Sleight-of-hand. Price §1 50 

Parlor Theatricals : or. Winter Evenings' Entertainment. Contain- 
ing Acting Proverbs. Dramatic Charades, Acting Charades, or Drawing-room 
1 mimes, Musical Burlesques. Tableaux Vivants, fee Bv the author of 
S iable," "TheM .1 k," " The Secret Out," && lino, 
gilt side and back, illustrated with descriptive engravings and diagrams. 
Price 7 5 cts. 

The Book of 1 .000 Tales and Amusing Adventures. 

fining over 300 engravings and 130 pages. This is a magnificent 
book, and is crammed full of the narratives and a Iventures of travelers, the ro- 
mai:: lebrated warriors, amusing stories in Natural History, besides 
a thousand thin g? relating - - ^rts. pastimes and 
games. In this capital work we have our old friend T I _iin, and he 
tells his stories as well as ever. The book is worth ten times tho price we ask 
forit. Price SI 50 

Ladies" Guide to Crochet. By Mas. Ass ?. Stephejs. Co- 
piously illustrated with original and very choice designs in Crochet, etc., printed 
in colors, separate from the letter press, on tinted paper. Also with numerous 
wood-cuts printed with tho h '.' iplanatory of terms, etc. Oblong, pp. 

117, beautifully bound in e.ttra cloth, gilt. This is by I work on the 

subject of Crochet yet published. There are plentyof other books containing 
Crochet patterns, but the difficulty is. tiuy do not have the necessary instr- 
how to work them, and are, therefore, useless. This work, however, supplies 

much-felt and elarin<r deficiency, and has the terms in Croche* so cleai 
plained, that any Crochet pattern, however difficult, may be •■■ tse. 

Price 1 : $1 ir, 

10.000 "Wonderful Things. O o ap ria ng the Marreloua an.l 

'.;nary, in all 
. including many •■■ 

MIND KlLI-lN 

I ano, cloth, gilt si 
H 

■ 
. of remarkable occurrences, beautiful 
landscapes, stupendous waterfalls, and sublime soa piciv 1 <i ", o 



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The American Boy's Book of Sports and G-am.es. a 

^Repository of in and out door Amusemen- --1 Youth. Dili 

with nearly 70'J engrar..- . r and Harv ; 

engrave! by :>.". Orr. 600 12m . BxJ I -_ide and back, extra gold, 

'.. Extra cloth, full - Lt - This is, Bt 

the most attractive and valuable Boo.-: '- f it- kin . 

country. It has been three years in prep oi mbracesall thesp. 

games "that tend to develop the physical constitution, im- : 
heart, and relieve the tedium of leisure hours, both in the pai i • field. 

The enLTa-rinz- are in the first style of the art, and embrace eight full nag 
mental titles, "illustrating the several departments of the work, bea— f - - 

ed on tinted paper. The book is issued in the best style, being printed on fine, 
sized paper, and. handsomely bound in extra cloth, ■with gilt side and back. 1 _ . 
following will give an idea of its contents : 



Part I— The Play-- Ground; or, 

Oot-Dooh Games with a2tb without 
Tovs. Including Games of Activity ani 
Speed; Games with Toys, Marbles _' 7 pc 
Hoops. Kites. Archerv. Ralls ; witi Cr iefcet 

Croquet and Base-Ball. 

Part II— Athletic and Graceful 

KECREATIC»"S. _::::.-: ^--.-jytt-.s. 
S'iai-z. -Tr' -.- : - - -:-;i: -i ;;;i: .-;rsr- 
manship. Riding, DrlT;ir ai:.i: 7:i:ir 
and Broadsword. 

Part HI- Amusements with Pets. 

Comprising Singing and Talking Birds. Pi- 
geons. Domestic and Aquatic Fowls. Babbits. 
Squirrels. Mice. Guinea-Pigs. Raccoon and 
Oj-.s.nii ->'-:i £i_:a^iiriii i:=:i::;:.i. 



Part TV— Play-Room Games for 

E AI>" Y DATS. Inclcdinr Bound Games and 
■ eata, Board and Slate Games, and Table 
ill - ;- _ : ill.. 



Part V— Eyening Amusements. 

:'--.: 7r_. ■ i - •_ . - :.: - : . _ .: Z. . 



Part "VT— Mechanical and MIS- 
CELLANEOUS AMUSEMENTS -rinsing 

_—:-— .-l:-::: ;;:; ; :.:: _-.il-.ri- 
S lamps and Fragments. 



;; Trump's " American Hoyle ; or. Gentlemen s r 

Containing clear and complete descriptions of ail the Games played in the Tnire-i 
States, with the American Bules for playing them, including Whist, Euchre, 
Besique. Cribbage. All-Fours, Loo. Poker, Brag, Piquet, Ecarte, Boston, Cassino, 
Chess, Checkers, Backgammon, Dominoes, Billiards, and a hundred other games . 
To which is appended an Elaborate Treatise on the Doctrine of Chances. 

Reasons why the "American Hoyle" must be the Standard Authority for 
all Games played in the United States : 



Because it is an American Boot prepared with 
great care, with the aid and counsel of a large 
number of the best players both amateur and pro- 
fessional) in this county. 

The Rules, descriptions, definitions and techni- 
calities are all simplified and adapted to the several 
games as they are actually played here. 

Many of our games are peculiarly American, and 
cannot be intelligibly described except by an 
American who understands them, while those of 
foreign origin have become so changed by Ameri- 
can modifications, as to maXe the European roles 
aii il<:r:7i:ii i£ ----7 '-- —;---- ^ "-- -i-'i-.i 



la preparing this work: the best cr greatest 
weight of "authority for each particular game has 
been taken upon disputed points. 

7i. . — --'--'■ :--.:= .' .'-.is .— -cits s.i i 
Backgammon are illustrated with over 150 dia- 
grams of games, problems and critical positions. 
i . : ' - i. :i _i~: ' - - -.- :i-t:". - t 17- : :'- 
board since the work was stereotyped, and nearly 
100 errors (which appear :"i 7.' - Saaae Books 
:i':_i:^i:-:ii rr-n :v:-. :: - :. — _:::i 

a:: -.if ri^ii played in the railed Stales, 
whether of home or foreign origin, are gtren as 
-_i=y ir; ;li-;i -7 -— -' ---•- -'■ — - t-=s._-. _iy 



lihno.j 500 pages, cloth, gilt side and back, profusely illustrated. Price,. S3 00. 

Brisbane's G-olden Ready Reckoner, Calculated in Dol- 
lars and Cents, being a useful Assi;:?.-: 7? Traders in buying and selling various 
sorts of commodities, either wholesale or retail, stowing at once the aanom - . 
value of any number of articles ; or quantity of goods, or any merchandise, either 
by the gallon, quart, pint, ounce, pound, quarter, hundred, yard, foot, inch, 
bushel, etc. , in an easy and plain manner. To which are added," Interest Tables 
calculated in dollars and cents, for days and for months, at six per cent., and at 
seven per cent., per annum, alternately : and a great number of ether Tables and 
Eules for calculation, never before in print. Bound in boards, cloth back. By 
"William D. Bhi sb a>t, A. M., Accountant, Bookkeeper, ic. Price 35 cts. 



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Parlor Theatricals ; or, Winter Evenings' Entertainment. Contain- 
ing Acting Proverbs, Dramatic Charades'; Acting Charades, or Drawing-room 
Pantomimes, Musical Burlesques, Tableaux Yivants, -kc. ; with Instructions for 
Amateurs; now to Construct a Stage and Curtain; how to get up Costumes and 
Properties, on the "Making TJp" of Characters, Exits and Entrances; how to 
arrange Tableaux, etc. Illustrated with Engravings. Paper covers, price 30 cts. 
Bound in boards, cloth hack, 50 cts. 

The Parlor Magician ; or, One Hundred Tricks for the Drawing-Room, 
containing an Extensive and Miscellaneous Collection of Conjuring and Legerde- 
main ; Sleights with Dice, Dominoes, Cards, Ribbons, Pings, Fruit, Coin, Balls, 
Handkerchiefs, etc., all of which may he Performed in the Parlor or Drawing-Room, 
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illustrated and clearly explained with 121 engravings. Paper covers, price 30 cts. 
Bound in hoards, with cloth hack 50 cts. 

The Book of 500 Curious Puzzles. Containing a large col- 
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Tricks in Geometry. By the author of " The Sociable," "The Secret Out," "The 
Magician's Own Book." Illustrated with a Great Variety of Engravings. This 
book will have a large sale. It will furnish Eun and Amusement for a whole 

winter. Paper covers, price ---30 cts. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back 50 cts. 

Book of Riddles and Five Hundred Home Amuse- 
ments, containing a Choice and Curious Collection of Piddles, Charades, Enigmas, 
Rebuses, Anagrams, Transpositions, Conundrums, Amusing Puzzles, Queer Sleights, 
Recreations in Arithmetic, Fireside Games, and Natural Magic, embracing Enter- 
taining Amusements in Magnetism, Chemistry, Second Sight, and Simple Recrea- 
tions in Science for Family and Social Pastime, illustrated with sixty engravings. 

Paper covers, price 30 cts. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back 50 cts. 

Parlor Tricks "With Cards, containing Explanations of all the 
Tricks and Deceptions with Playing Cards ever invented, embracing Tricks with 
Cards performed by Sleight-of-hand ; by the aid of Memory, Mental Calculation, 
and Arrangement of the Cards ; by the aid of Confederacy, and Tricks Performed 
by the aid of Prepared Cards. The whole illustrated and made plain and easy, with 

seventy engravings. Paper covers, price 30 cts. 

Bound in boards with clota back 50 cts. 

The Book Of Fireside G-ailies. Containing an Explanation of 

the most Entertaining Games suited to the Family Circle as a Recreation, such as 

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in which an opportunity is afforded to display Gallantry, "Wit, or some slight 

knowledge of certain Sciences, Amusim; Forfeits, Fireside (.lames for Winter Even? 

ing Amusement, etc. Paper covers, price 30 cts. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back 50 cts. 

The Poet's Companion ; A. Dictionary of all Allowable Rhymes in 

nglith Language. This is a Book to aid aspiring genius in the Composition 

of Rhymes, and m Poetical Effusions generally. It gives the Perfect, the 

[mperfeot, and the Allowable Rhymes, and Will enable you to ascertain, to a 

certainty, whether any word can I cited. 1 1 is invaluable to any one who desires 

, on mi 8d by some of the best writers in the country. 
".-25 eta 

Rarey & Knowlson's Complete Horse Tamer and Far- 

i hi" t he whole riiooryof Coming ot Breaking the Horse, by a New and 

[mprovi l Method, as pro ticod mi agi i in the United States, and in all the 

- ■ i i el ipo, by -i . 8. liin v, containing Rules for selecting a go id dor b, 

for Poodlng Hoi i i, etc. \ I Oj ThbCompli rs Farmer; or, Horse i>< »tor ,■ a Guide 

for tbo Troatmont of Hoi as in al] Diseo to whioh that noble animal is liable, 

then alt of practice of the author, by John 0. Knowx- 

during bis life, an Bngll b Farrier of high popularity, containing the latest 

id .■•■!'.•■ n. i in tin' i ited with desorlptlve EngrsMngs. Bound 

in bo .",c, -i-.. 



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Live and Learil ; A Guide for all who wish to Speak and W, i 

rectly; particularly intended asaBook of Reference for the solution of difficulties 
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Inquire Within, for anything you want to know., A book of 
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The Secret Out ; or, One Thousand Tricks with Cards. A Book 
which explains all the Tricks and Deceptions with Playing Cards ever known or 
invented, and gives, besides, a great many new and interesting ones — the whole 
being described so accurately and carefully, with Engravings to illustrate them, 
that anybody can easily learn how to practice these Tricks. This book contains, 
in addition to its numerous Card Tricks above described, full and easily under- 
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and which are illustrated by Engravings to make each Trick understood with 
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Laughing G-as. An Encyclopaedia of Wit, Wisdom, and Wind- 
By Sa.m Slick, Jr. Comically illustrated with 100 original and laughable engrav- 
ings, and nearly 500 side-extending Jokes, and other things to get fat on ; and 
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Charley White's Joke Book. Being a perfect Casket of Fun, 
the first and only work of the kind ever published. Containing a full expose of 
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Black Wit and Darkey. Conversations. By Chakles 

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Chips from Uncle Sam's Jack-Knife. illustrated with over 

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Fox's Ethiopian Comicalities. Containing Strange Sayings. 
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batim, as recited by the celebrated Ethiopian Comedian. With several Comic 
Illustrations. Price - — 13 cts. 



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TllSlt's It; or . Plain Teaching. By the author of " Inquire Within," 
" The Reason "Why," " The Corner Cupboard," "Live and Learn," " The Bibli- 
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things which, without such assistance, could only be imperfectly conceived. The 
work contains nearly 400 pages, and oyer 1,200 wood engravings, and forms one 
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Narratives and Adventures of Travelers in Africa. 

Illustrated with numerous fine Engravings, and containing a Map of Africa, on 
which the routes of Dr. Livingstone and Dr. Barth are accurately traced. Largo 
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abundantly interspersed with true stories of chivalric enterprise and heart -thrill- 
ing adventure. It respectfully solicits, therefore, the acceptance of all ranks, 
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Duncan's Masonic Ritual and Monitor ; or, Guide 

to the Three Symbolic Degrees of the Ancient York Rite : and to the Degrees 
of Mark Master, Past Master, Moist Excellent Master, and the Royal Arch. By 
Malcolm C. Duncan. Explained and interpreted by copious notes and numerous 
engravings. Although this work is a complete Ritual of the Symbolic and Chap- 
ter Degrees, and is also profusely illustrated with engravings of the Secret Signs 
and Grips, it is not so much the design of the author to gratify the curiosity of the 
uninitiated, as to furnish a guide to the younger members of the order, by means 
of which their progress from grade to grade may be facilitated. The " work " laid 
down in this book differs from any thing heretofore published. No Mason should 

be without it Bound in Cloth. Price ij>2 50 

Leather tucks (Pocket-Book Style) with gilt edges 3 00 

The Lady's Manual of Fancy "Work. A Complete in- 
structor in every variety of Ornamental Needle- Work, with a list of materials 
and hints for their selection; advice on making up and trimming. The whole 
being a complete Lexicon, of Fancy Needle- Work. By Mas. Pullan, Editor of 
the London and Paris Gazette of Fashion, and Director of the Work-table of 
Frank Leslie's Magazine, Illustrated Magazine,, &C, &c. Illustrated with over 
300 Engravings, by the best artists, with eight large pattern plates, elegantly 
i on tinted paper. Large octavo, beautifully bound in fine, loth, 
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Work, Knotting, Knitting, Netting, Lace-Work, Embroidery, Crochet, Ac, &c., 
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women of the present age. Price... $2 00 

Anecdotes Of Love. Bcinjr a true account of the most remark- 
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romantic and surprising anecdotes really contain all of the most, tragic and 
i oiioi. event i conni i ted with the history of the tender passion among all Nations 
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ii tohapwr. And betides the exciting love histories embraood in this volume. 

il i ii! i nl mm i i, il deal Of v.ilmilile historic lore, which is not to be found 

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Arts Of Beauty; or, Secrets of a Lady's Toilet. With hints to 
Gentlemen on the Art of Fascinating. By Madame Lola Montez, Countess of 
Landsfeldt. Cloth, gilt side. This book contains uu account, in detail, of all the 
arta employed by the fashionable ladies of all the chief cities of Europe, for the 
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SongS Of Ireland. Embracing Songs of the Affections, Convivial 
and Comic Songs, Patriotic and Military Songs, Historical and Political E 
Moral, Sentimental, Satirical, and Miscellaneous Songs. Edited and Annotated 
by Samuel Lover, Esq., author of " Handy Andy," " Kory O'More," "Legends 
and Stories of Ireland," &c. Embellished with numerous "fine Illustrations, en- 
graved by the celebrated Dalziel. 12mo, cloth, gilt side and back. 
Price $1 50 

The Family Aquarium. A new Pleasure for the Domestic 

Circle. Being a familiar and complete Instructor upon the subject of the Con- 
struction, Fitting-up, Stocking, and Maintenance of the Marine and Eresh 
"Water Aquaria, or Pviver and Ocean Gardens. By H. D. Butler, Esq. 12mo, 
cloth, gilt side stamp. This work is a complete adaptation to American peculiar- 
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with a careful concentration of all the practical results of the author's great 
experience in the structure and management of Aquaria. Price 75 cts. 

The Dictionary Of Love. Containing a Definition of all the 

Terms used in the History of the Tender Passion, with rare quotations from the 
Ancient and Modern Poets of all Nations, together with specimens of curious 
model Love-Letters, and many other interesting matters appertaining; to Love, 
never before published ; the whole forming a remarkable Text-Book for all 
Lovers, as well as a complete Guide to Matrimony, and a Companion of Mar- 
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with several original translations from the Greek and Latin, by Tueocratus, 
Junior. 12mo, cloth, gilt side and back. Price $1 50 

The Bordeaux Wine and Liquor Dealers' Grurr'e. 

A Treatise on the Manufacture of Liquors. By a practical Liquor Manufacturer. 
12ino., cloth. Price $3 50 

Strange Stories of a Detective Officer ; or, Curiosities of 

Crime. By an ex-Detective. There is something exceedingly fascinating in 
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The Bar-Tender's Guide ; or, Complete Cyclopaedia of fancy 

Drinks. Containing plain and reliable Directions for making all the Fancy 
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German, and Spanish Recipes ; to which is appended a Manual for the manu- 
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methods now used in the Distillation of Liquors and Beverages, designed for the 
special use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern 
Keepers, and Private Families, tho same being adapted to the Trade of the United 
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The Art Of Conversation. With remarks on Fashion and 
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Horse-Taming by a New Method. As practiced by J. s. 

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Etiquette and the Usages of Society. Containing the 

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"Willis. A book of G4 pages. Price - lO cts. 

Bound in cloth with gilt side, and printed on fine paper, suitable for 

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The Games of Euchre, "Whist, Loo, and Poker. With 

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This is one of the best and most useful books ever issued in the cheap form. It 
is printed in cle^r and beautiful type, and on fine paper. Price 13 c»S. 

100 Tricks with Cards. J- H. Green, the Reformed Gambler, 
has just authorized the publication of a new edition of his book entitled "Gam- 
blers' Tricks with Cards Exposed and Explained." This is a bo. k of 9G pages, 
andit exposes and explains all the mysteries of the Gambling Tables. It is inter- 
esting not only to those who play, but to those who do not. O". " Players will get 
some new ideas from this curious book. Price 1 ■ ---JJ-'icts. 

The Game of Drang" ts or Checkers Simplified and 

Explained. With Practical Diagrams and Illustrations, together with a 
ciii-rkiT-liourd, numbered and printed in red. Containing the Eighteen Standard 
Games, with over 200 of the best variations selected from the various authors, 
together with many original ones never before published. By D. SCATTBBGOOD- 
Bound in cloth, with tlexihle cover. Trice 1 50 els. 

The American Home Cook Book. Containing several hun- 
dred excellent Recipes. The whole based on many year.-.' experience of an 
American Housewife. Illustrated with Engravings. All the Recipes in this 

i ii an- written from actual experiments in cooking. There are no copyings 

fromti retical cooking recipes. It is a book of 138 pages, and is very che 

Price .30 ota. 

The Laws of Love. A Complete Code of Gallantry. Cotfiain- 

inp oo i i li i for i bo condui I ■ >.' Oouri Hip through its entire progress, aphor- 

■ •i love, rules for telling the characters and dispositions of women, remedies 
12 mo. Paper. Price 



for i".. . , ., n i ,,i i pj i olary Code 



. 3 5 ota. 



How to "Win and How to Woo. Containing Rules for (he 
Etiqni ■ • lurtship, with directions showing how to win the favor of Ladies, 

how t" begin arid end :i r t- hip, .-nid how Eove 1.. Iters should bo Wt I en. 

Price i'-i o1a. 



Bond Cash Old. M TZLrEUALD, 18 Ann St., N. Y. 



STERLING & FRANCINE CLARK ART INSTITUTE 

NK9100 P84 stack 

Pullan/The lady's manual of fancy-work 




III 1 1 'II I llll 
3 1962 00079 0257